From "marriage difficult" to "don't want to knot" - how to watch "City Leaves" from the data

From the Chinese New Year to Valentine's Day, but also a "to marry" peak.

After 90 marriage has become the main force in the market at the same time, public shortly before the National Bureau of Statistics latest data show, after almost 90 worst obstetrical data generation: 2021 480 000 net increase in population, 10.62 million new births, birth rate 7.52 ‰, compared with ten years ago, the birth rate fell by nearly half.

Marriage and child rearing difficult issue has been a hot spot, unlike rural "left men", the city's name on marriage is discriminatory hardship color of the "remainder" group - did not enter the traditional concept of marriage in the age of the women of childbearing.

"City left women" is real?

Popular network behind the "remainder" topic had in 2013, although it is no longer the heat, but to see nearly a decade Baidu search index, you can see the geographical distribution of this topic is very clear, wide north these large cities retain this the highest degree of discussion topics.

So, this urban legend about the "left women" Is there a demographic basis?

Conventional wisdom, the number of Chinese society is beyond the number of women in many men, the demographic data also show that in recent years, the proportion of men and women in our country about 105 (female = 100, the same below). From the point of view provinces sex ratio is such that even the deep north of Guangzhou these cities are no exception.

However, if carefully screened resident population and household population, you will find big cities to reverse the sex ratio has occurred. Many cities including Guangzhou and Shenzhen, including the north, the number of women than men.

To Shanghai household population, for example, in 2009, Shanghai household population of women than men for the first time. The latest data show that in 2019 Shanghai household registration ratio was 97.9. And across the country, the faster the flow of talent urban sex ratio decline faster, Shenzhen, for example, the sex ratio was 113.1 in 2010, ten years after it fell to 97.8.

Household population decline in the sex ratio, can be understood as more women than men prefer to move into large cities from rural areas or smaller cities.

First, in the city, women can achieve higher and more equal pay. "Chinese workplace gender differences reported in 2021" shows that my country's current staff salary differences between men and women is about 32 percent female wage disadvantage is still very large, but in some industries, such as the Internet and IT industry, women pay a disadvantage of about 16%, only half of the overall pay gap, and in the financial sector, the level of the gender pay gap over the previous year reduced by 3%, becoming the largest industry to reduce the pay gap. These industries exist only in large cities.

In addition, awareness of gender equality in society as a whole are making progress. Especially the "one-child" policy, China to "80", "90" Women gained the full support of the family, much less short-term economic burden, women have more opportunities in the academic, career and men in the same field sports.

Relative to the resident population, household population likely represents the long-term residence, marriage is also mostly in the city. In the long run, an increase in urban household registration of women, will inevitably result in "missing man big city, small local missing woman," the regional gender imbalance, "left women" concept does have a demographic basis.

Mate gradient theory

Of course, the City "left women" appear, not only because of excess female population, but in recent years the city was the main reason for female mate choice space is compressed to a certain extent, leading to marriage difficult.

Zexu need to be cautious since ancient times, the traditional view of marriage emphasis on examination of the economic strength of men. The survey shows that men and women in marriage are expected to bear the expenses are not the same. Overall, the economic pressure to bear more men.

Men of high economic demands, leading to the current market-driven marriage mate concept is still "low marry men and women marry high." Especially in big cities, cost of living, marriage costs are high, the more women want to find economic strength is not weaker than their partners, in order to alleviate the economic pressure.

This "women do not marry," the concept is actually a social mate ladder system. Some studies have shown that mate psychology, society gives men and women different gender needs, women pay more attention to the economic and social status of men, while men pay more attention to women's appearance, size, relative age and housekeeping ability, women with their own resources in exchange for these more families the right to speak, in order to form a balanced relationship. (Xu Anqi (2000) mate selection criteria: fifty years of change and cause of Sociological Research, 6, 18-30.)

But women's groups at the same time the selector up, the objective, does cause the uppermost and lowermost female male forced out - in the context of the Chinese Super urbanization, also appeared in the City "left women" and rural "left men."

The top groups of women to their own conditions are relatively good, not only financially independent, educated also generally higher. If you follow the gradient theory spouse, partner will not only economic power to inspect, will be treated as a hard education standards, which leads to higher education, the smaller the space mate.

More noteworthy is that the current higher education groups in society, the number of women with boys phenomenon has been formed.

Ministry of Education data show that higher education population, the number of women has been largely achieved ahead of men: in 2000, the proportion of women receiving higher education, only 40.98 percent; and in 2021, women accounted for graduate degree from 50.94% ordinary women who have specialist qualifications accounted for 52.53%, for adult education were women accounted for 57.98 percent is reached. This means that women who choose to be upward gradient, alternative space itself is small than men. It will also be able to explain why in recent years, all kinds of highly educated blind date after another, and often mostly female guests.

"Left" down does not matter

Of course, with the progress of social attitudes, the awakening of female consciousness, "urban remainder" reasons in addition to "hard marriage", may now be more of a "do not want to bear."

First, with women affected by raising the educational level, the concept of marriage is more relaxed, free.

Sixth census has shown that the higher the education, the lower marriage rate. Our country has not attended school, junior high, high school, undergraduate, master's married female rates were 65%, 78%, 57%, 56%, 49%, you can see more than junior high school education, and education levels of women married to inversely proportional; the same time, higher education marry later, in the 25-29 age group, junior high school educated women married rate of 84%, while only 37% of female master's degree, even the former is less than half.

With highly educated female population base continues to expand, the overall marriage rate of women decreased is inevitable. Highly educated stepping stone can be said to remain in the big cities, highly educated women increased the number of directly contributing more women to stay in the big cities, for the broad vision, advanced the concept of highly educated women, the marriage will not have to.

On the other hand, economic independence and self-confidence of women gave highly educated women living alone in big cities is no longer a problem.

In the hearts of this generation of women, has become the highest pursuit of independence, "engaged in business" is the top priority. Single people to be independent, single women to be independent, even married women, society has become more encouraged to adhere to its own business, avoid housewives and reduce economic dependence on marriage in the other half.

At the same time, social tolerance for older unmarried young women is also increasing. In more than 900 pieces of know almost answered question "?-Old woman left the city a lot of how to solve the problem", the highest praise the authors write: "In fact, many older woman left do not feel that they are left with a problem most of this problem ...... answer, stood a man point of view. "

More people believe that the "remainder" label is a product of gender-malicious, "urban remainder" is not a problem, you do not need to be resolved.

In recent years, the "remainder" this topic gradually being abandoned by the Internet, in fact, is the best proof that people view marriage and childbearing continues to open up and progress.

We welcome community of Marriage Views in progress, at least at the individual level, to ease the anxiety of women's marriage. In turn, this more open and inclusive concept will produce the erosion of the traditional psychological gradient mate, release female mate choice space.

Overall, older unmarried women in excess of the city, is a complex phenomenon, involving demography, social marriage psychology, economics and so on the field, and not only to carry out a narrow understanding of the concept of the social dimension. On a personal level, this is not a problem, but at the societal level, it is indeed a group representation, it may also affect future population growth.

We need to face difficult urban women in marriage and child rearing, marriage and child rearing issues low, helping to narrow the gender differences in the economic, education, human differences across the urban-rural balance, love and marriage demand.

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