9 seconds 69 with human motion limit

Beijing Olympic Games unprecedented in terms of breaking the world record. Bolt to create the best result so far since --9 69 seconds in the 100 meters run on behalf of humanity in the fastest and most classic. What factors determine human speed is the fastest human can achieve fast?

2000 Sydney Olympics were broken 34 world records, the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, is to rewrite the 29 world records. However, the just-concluded Beijing Olympic Games even more set a record world record in track and field, swimming, weightlifting, cycling, archery, shooting venue, 24 were 8 of 46 teams broke 38 world records; one on a world level record; including two Chinese players six times rewriting four world records.

The centuries-old Hectometer

Athletics is the mother of the movement and 100 meter sprint is the crown of athletics. From the 100 meters sprint start, you can learn by analogy, a deep understanding of the nature and limits of human movement. At the same time, which is why one of the most talked about breaking Bolt 100 meters record of 200 meters reasons.

At the Beijing Olympics, the Jamaican athlete Usain Bolt in the men's 100 meters, 200 meters. Three new world record and 4X100 relay race. The height, 96 m, weight 88 kg, 22 year-old 100-meter sprinter ran 9 seconds 69 and 19 seconds bests 30 200 m. Former broke the world record in New York, he ran out of the 2008 June 1 72 9 seconds, and the second broke the famous American athlete Michael Johnson created in 1996 at the Atlanta Olympic Games men's 200 meters 19 world record of 32 seconds. It also is not, Bolt also created its mate 4X100-meter world record 37 seconds 10, and former world record was 1993, August 21 Americans created 37 seconds 40.

Bolt's record once again raises the people in front of each new world record must be repeated topic: Where are the limits of human or one hundred meters sprint in other words, human beings 100 meters of whether the speed limit??

To answer this question, first examine the history of mankind for centuries sprint, and then to be answered by scientific studies physiology, movement mechanics and biochemistry.

July 6, 1912, Americans Donald in Stockholm, Sweden created 10 seconds 100 meters world record of 6. 1960, 48 years later, West German athletes Amin meter record will rewrite the entire 10 seconds. And this short span of time of 0.6 seconds, mankind took nearly half a century. 1968 start of the 100 meters with electronic record, Hines became the first person to create a world record in the electronic record nowadays a score of 95 to 9 seconds. Since then 100-meter world record was broken repeatedly.

July 3, 1983: The United States Smith created a world record of 9 seconds 93;

September 24, 1988: The United States of Lewis created a new world record of 9.92;

June 14, 1991: US Brel reach 9 seconds 90;

August 25, 1991: The United States Lewis hit 9 seconds 86;

July 6, 1994: US Brel record 9 seconds 85;

1996 July 27: Canada Bailey ran a new world record of 9 seconds 84 at the Atlanta Olympics;

1999 June 16: The United States Green hit 9 seconds 79;

2005 June 14: Jamaican Powell record 9.77 seconds;

September 9, 2007: Jamaica, Powell hit a 9 seconds 74;

June 1, 2008: Jamaican Usain Bolt ran 9 seconds 72;

2008 August 16: 9 seconds 69 Bolt of Jamaica broke the world record again.

Grandchildren, from 1912 to 2008, nearly a hundred years this time, the 100 meters record of 0.91 seconds but improved.

Gene is the first element of the decision to speed?

Pick two shining waves to compare from history, we can see the progress of mankind 100 meters speed slow and difficult. From 1912 to 1960 48 years, humans speed 100 m 0.6 sec. However, another 48-year period 1960 to 2008, only 100 meters record of 0.31 seconds improved. Compared to the previous half-century, half a century later 100 meters performance increase is only half of the former.

In other words, the more forward, the human speed of 100 meters in the slowly improving, declining almost multiples. This sends a message, human sports performance is both limit and no limit. For example, the 100 m speed is constantly breakthrough, but a breakthrough in the scale is getting smaller. This seems Zi "foot Maul, whichever is half day, ages inexhaustible" another expression. In other words, to break the limits of human movement may be an infinite number of questions.

Determinants of human movement speed, there are many, but the main factors, the type of muscle, nerve response, muscle for energy, bones endurance, body structures, etc. There are also some secondary factors, such as training methods, wind, sports equipment (mechanical ) improvements (such as runways and sports apparel, etc.).

Human running speed to increase, first of all muscle contraction. After creating a new world record Usain Bolt in a widely circulated story. United for more than 200 athletes in Jamaica Jamaica Institute of Technology Professor Morrison, who with scientists at the University of Glasgow and the University of British India, Jamaica, West study found that 70 percent of the human body has a substance called Actinen A, this substance It can improve muscle fibers associated with the instantaneous speed, and these muscle fibers can make athletes run faster. In contrast, the Australian track and field athletes in only 30% of the human body contains Actinen A. In fact, the correct spelling is Actinen Actinin, Actinin A is α- actinin, i.e., a protein of human fast-twitch muscle fibers. This protein can be divided into several, the relatively clear that α- actinin-3 (ACTN3) associated with muscle contraction. ACTN3 filaments can directly bind one protein actin, which is a protein necessary for muscle contraction. However, for the α- actinin gene encoding 3 There are two variants, wherein R allele may encode produce actinin, which is only found in fast muscle fibers, and the role of these fibers is to provide sprint explosive power and speed required for the player, it is suitable for short alleles R (fast) run and weightlifting exercise. And α- actinin 3 Another one allele is x, it does not produce α- actinin 3, but with the movement needs endurance (e.g., long distance) related.

Currently, the world sports power are aimed at α- actinin-3 protein and its gene, but their role is complex. Some studies also suggest that, α- actinin-3 gene also associated with aggressive human gene associated. And α- actinin 3 is just one gene of elite athletes, there are many genes related motion talent, such as another called angiotensin converting enzyme (AcE) gene, it produces the ACE can affect the human body muscle oxygen utilization and muscle growth rate, thus changing the athletic performance.

Raising campaigns and of course, the limits of human genes, but there are many genes involved in sports. If these mysteries can slowly reveal over time, of course, the future may provide a scientific basis for the limits of movement continue to make breakthroughs.

Way of energy supply

Movement requires energy supply, and different sports have different ways of energy supply, which is the body have different biochemical reactions and metabolism.

Of muscle for energy have several substances, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), muscle glycogen and fat, they are able to supply the human body movement under different conditions, including anaerobic metabolism for energy and have energizing oxygen metabolism. Refers to anaerobic metabolism, during strenuous exercise, the body is in the process of energy metabolism in the temporary hypoxia, including two supply system.

A, non-lactic acid for energy (ATP-CP) system, generally lO seconds to maintain muscle activity. Because ATP release energy for muscle contraction time is only 1-3 seconds, after which rely on CP decomposed to provide energy. But then also cP muscle content can only for the decomposition of ATP for energy, of 6 to 8 seconds can be maintained muscle contraction time. 100 meters of strenuous exercise is rapid activity within 10 seconds, the main muscle is supplied by ATP-CP energy system. In this sense, the majority of people believe that human 100-meter race results also in about 10 seconds.

B, lactic acid energy supply system, referring to a continuous strenuous exercise, inositol intramuscular primitives glycolysis in the hypoxic state, after a series of chemical reactions that ultimately produce lactic acid in the body, while the release of energy for muscle contraction. This metabolic process, for about 1 to 3 minutes of muscle contraction time, usually powered mode distance running competition.

Further, in anaerobic metabolism, ATP, creatine phosphate and glycogen that occur after consumption of lactic acid in muscle and blood, which is an important factor causing decrease in fatigue and muscle function, at 100 and 200 m vigorously this movement is particularly evident. 5 to 10 seconds after the start 100 m, muscle biopsy showed adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate consumed significantly, a relatively large amount of lactic acid accumulation, mainly in the fast-twitch muscle fibers, muscle lactate may be increased by about 30 times. Lactic acid in body fluids from dissociated into hydrogen ions and lactate ions, and resulting in decreased blood pH. When muscle fatigue, muscle pH of between about 6.5 ~ 6.6, pH value of the blood between about 6.9 to 7.1. Therefore, an important factor for the accumulation of lactic acid can also affect the speed of the sprint.

And aerobic metabolism under conditions of sufficient oxygen, fat or muscle glycogen completely oxidized and decomposed ultimately generate carbon dioxide and water, while releasing large amounts of energy.

To complete run from 100 to 10,000 meters run various test value from athletes, for anaerobic metabolism can be 100 meters when 96%, 32% and blood lactic acid, adenosine triphosphate - creatine phosphate energy supply predominant component. Anaerobic metabolism for 400 and 800m can run 92% and 77%, respectively, nearly 32% of blood lactate. 5000 meters and 10,000 meter race dominated aerobic metabolism, blood lactate decreased significantly.

Therefore, on this link of an oxygen metabolism, 100 meters, 200 meters, the limit is three elements. First, the content and decomposition rate of ATP, CP in muscles, and the second is the aerobic yeast velocity and blood to the buffer of lactic acid; the third is the tolerance of neurons, muscle on hypoxic and lactic acid accumulation. Human structure and bone muscle endurance

Of course, the 100-meter speed of human beings depends on the body structure and how much the bones and muscles can be tolerated. This pressure is not only from outside, but also from the interior. External pressure such as weightlifting pressure and jump need to be detached from the stereotropic pressure. The internal pressure is also divided into two aspects, one is to withstand the self-weight of the body, and the second is to bear the pressure caused by muscle contraction on its own bones and muscles.

The bone is of course the most powerful support system of the human body, especially a building-building reinforced concrete structure. The human body has 206 bones, each with different protection objects. But all bones have strong pressure resistance. The measurement indicates that the bone per square centimeter can withstand the pressure of 2100 kg, which is more resistant to granite, and the latter is 1350 kg per square centimeter.

However, the maximum number of exercise relationship is the bone of the limbs, of which the tibia is the most hard bone of the human body. The tibia is located inside the calf. Weightlifters have the reliance on the tibia, and they hold a few hundred kilogram of barbells and will not be crushed. The weight of the tibia can exceed 20 times more than 20 times the average weight of the human body.

Muscles are tissues attached to the bone, which also determines the limit of human movement. Most of the power running forward is provided by the four-headed muscle contraction, and the four-head muscle is connected to the knee. When running, both muscles, joints and bones require this powerful pressure from the muscle contraction. One of the founders of biomechanics Jidi B · Ari believes that if the 100 m speed exceeds 9.6 seconds, the strength of muscle contraction is sufficient to cause four tendons and knee junction torn. That is, the 100 m speed of human beings cannot exceed 9 seconds 6, and Ari Rui has made this limit since 1976, no one has broken.

Buffering power of only bone and joints in the human body structure also restricts the speed of human movement. For example, the human body has three "springs" that slow down the pressure. The first "spring" is on the spine and is the "sponge cushion" - intervertebral disc. It consists of two parts, and the outer part: the externally is tough and elastic fiber ring, and the interior is a diamondulus of a white and elastic colloidal substance. This structure allows the spine to absorb pressure, absorb oscillation, and reduce the impact. Different parts of the intervertebral disc, the thickness is different: the thinner in the middle of the chest, the thick waist is the thicker, so the waist is more convenient. Female waist is more than men, and the gap is large. This unique condition allows them to complete high-difficult gymnastics or acrobatics.

The second "spring" of the human body is the muscles of the legs and tendons connecting muscles and skeleton. Among them, the best odorcular muscles and bumper muscles of calfs, as well as condylene tendons connected to them. The Aquarium is 37 cm long and the elasticity is similar to high quality rubber. According to estimates, one person runs at a medium speed of 4.5 meters per second, the maximum force of the ground is about 2.8 times the weight of the human body, while the strength of the Arabid is about 7 times the weight of the human body. If run at a speed of 100 m 10 seconds, the pressure on the sky is 7 times higher than the weight of the bodies. This is also the cause of Liu Xiang and other short runners, and there is a reason why the "Achilles's" Achilles's "Achilles's" The "Achilles'".

The last "spring" is a bow, it is the arched structure of the foot. The arch is two effects. First, reduce the pressure of the feet. With the arch, the human body weight is about 52% of the people, and the remaining followers are on the head and small ion bones. With a bow, the feet can buffer the vibration when elasticity, labor and exercise. The second role of the arch is to keep a balance. With the arch, weigh the "tripod", walk, walk, run, run, run, run, run, run, run, run away. There is almost no big bow, so I will sway the road.

From the above aspects, different experts, scholars calculate different limits of 100 meters of human beings. Some think it is 9 seconds 4, and some considered 9 seconds 29, and there is an accurate to 9 seconds 6543 to 9 seconds 6545. The most bold forecast is that the limit of 100 meters of human beings will be 9 seconds, but they have not broken through 9 seconds.

However, 9 seconds or further 8 seconds is not the limit of 100 meters of human beings. Because, in 1936 Jessio Wens, people predicted the limit of 100 meters of human beings for 10 seconds. But the time has passed 70 years, and the human beings reached 9 seconds. Of course, human beings will have a breakthrough, but the size of the breakthrough depends on the factors of the above aspects.

Tip: The content of this article is for reference only, please refer to the consultation results of regular hospitals!