Sports and health | Scientific movement, have you done right?

Body activity preparation questionnaire

Before you plan to exercise, for your safety, please read carefully and answer the following 6 questions according to your actual situation.


□ □ Do you told you that you have a heart disease or can you only participate in the physical activity recommended by the doctor?

□ □ When you have a physical activity or exercise, have you felt the feeling of chest pain or severe breath?

□□ Since last month, have you not participated in physical activity or exercise, have chest pain or severe breath?

□□ In the past 6 months, when you are doing physical activity or exercise, have you fell or lost consciousness due to dizziness?

□ □ Do you have bone or joint pain or functional disorders that are aggravated due to physical activity or exercise?

□ □ Do you told your blood pressure over 180 / 110mmHg?

If you answer "yes" on any of the above questions, please stop participating in this fitness exercise, and note: (1) Consult the doctor before participating in the fitness project, and explain which question in the questionnaire is "yes"; (2 2; 2 (2 2 ) When participating in fitness activities, you must step by step, gradually adapt, and the exercise intensity should not be too large, and the time should not be too long; (3) can start again that it is a safe fitness method; Activities; (5) The necessary drug treatment is adopted in a timely manner.

If you answer all the above questions "No", you can continue to perform fitness exercise, but please note: (1) to participate in a large amount of exercise or exercise intensity to avoid excessive fatigue; This formulates the best fitness plan.

Note: This questionnaire is established by Professor Wang Zhengzhen of Beijing University of Sports University with reference to the relevant information. It is suitable for people at the age of 15-69. People over 69 years of age should consult a doctor before fitness activities.

In recent years, with the in -depth implementation of national fitness, people's participation has continued to improve, and "more exercise and less illness" has become more and more social consensus.

What are the benefits of regular exercise? What are the important principles of the scientific movement? How can we avoid exercise risks? Our reporter interviewed Zhang Yimin, a professor at Beijing Physical Education University and director of the Ministry of Sports and Sports and Physical Health Education, and asked him to answer questions.

The late night exercise is extreme

Science movement is a good doctor. "Scientific exercise can not only effectively enhance cardiopulmonary function, promote human metabolism, enhance muscle ligament strength, but also make people feel physical and mental, enhance pressure resistance, and promote people's physical and mental health." Zhang Yimin said that "physical and medical integration" is to implement health. The important way to move China's actions plays a positive role in improving and promoting the health of the masses.

Is there the best time to exercise one day? "Actually, what time to exercise has little effect on fitness effects. From the factors that affect fitness effects, the key is that exercise loads must match the health state of personal constitution." Zhang Yimin introduced that the time period of people's exercise is mainly affected by the schedule time. Big, "Take me as an example, I am busy teaching and preparation during the day, and I have no time to exercise. Then I have become the best time for me to exercise from 18:00 to 20:00 after get off work."

In recent years, some gyms in the first -tier cities have launched a 24 -hour gym in order to cater to the "special schedule" of office workers. The fitness statistics released by Lede in July last year showed that in Beijing, the fitness groups from 22:00 to 8 am the next day accounted for 12.8%. In the country, the proportion of membership of fitness during this period is close to 10%.

In the late night that should have been sleeping, this exercise should be added or reduced for health? "I think it is a reduction, and the exercise in late night is a bit extreme, which may disrupt the biological rhythm." Zhang Yimin reminded that for office workers, it is more appropriate to squeeze out for 30 minutes before dinner after get off work. If there are occasional special circumstances, overtime is relatively late. For example, at 10 o'clock in the evening, you want to exercise. It is recommended to move for 30 minutes. You can sweat. "You know, rest is also an important way to eliminate fatigue. Exercise is systematic. For a long time, there is nothing to exercise one day, and you can continue to exercise in the future. There is no need to exercise late at night. "

Right now is the season of spring flowers. Many people who have "cats" have begun to go outdoors and move their bones. "Actually, it is suitable for exercise, but beware of extreme weather effects." Zhang Yimin emphasized that do not exercise in the environment of cold, hot, humidity, strong wind, pollution, and radiation. Low, pay attention to the effects of temperature and wind during exercise; summer exercise should be protected from heat stroke; if there are special circumstances such as haze and sudden temperature drop in winter, it is not recommended to do outdoor sports.

Don't forget to stretch after exercise

"Generally speaking, it is definitely better than moving." In Zhang Yimin's view, the scientific movement needs to follow basic principles such as safety, comprehensive accuracy, gradual progress, and perseverance. People are adapt to local conditions.

Principles of security. "It is very important to do preparation activities and stretching exercises before exercise, but the latter is often ignored by many people." Zhang Yimin pointed out that the human muscles continued to shrink and decline in elasticity during exercise. It may bring these problems: local inflammatory factors, metabolic waste, etc. cannot be discharged, causing fatigue to increase and slower recovery; the body with fatigue will increase the risk of injuries and induce sports damage such as "running knees". "If the muscles behind the calf touched the hard -to -state, the knee joint had a sense of exhaustion or faint discomfort, it may be caused by no stretching after exercise." Zhang Yimin introduced that the study confirmed that stretching after exercise helps to help help Relax muscle and enhance muscle elasticity is one of the "magic weapons" to reduce exercise damage. Stretching exercises must be guaranteed for at least 10 minutes, or about 1/3 of the duration of exercise.

Comprehensive principle. Different categories of exercise will bring different fitness effects, and the exercise methods are a little better. It is best to include aerobic exercise, strength training and flexibility training. Aerobic exercise can make people's cardiopulmonary function better, but also directly affects the ability of the whole body organs; strength practice helps to improve muscle strength, and avoid problems such as walking, running, and jumping due to insufficient strength; flexible training such as flexibility training; That is, stretching exercises can improve muscle stretching ability and effectively prevent exercise damage.

Principles of accuracy. As long as the fitness action standards and reasonable exercise load are reasonable, exercise damage is basically avoided. The "fake" action that is not working hard and the non -standard "wrong" action is the main cause of exercise injury accidents. For example, "sitting up and sitting up" is a typical non -standard movement, which may cause exercise damage. If the hand is gently placed on the head or the ears, and the chest, it mainly uses the abdomen to pull the torso instead of the use of both hands and hands, instead of the help of both hands and hands, not to use both hands, with both hands and hands, instead of the help of both hands and hands, not to use both hands, with both hands and hands, instead, The head is not only harmful, but it can also exercise core muscles well.

Principles step by step. The frequency of exercise varies from person to person. Generally speaking, it should be exercised at least 3 times a week, and it is best to gradually increase to 5 times a week in order to ensure the fitness effect. Regardless of the level of physical fitness, you must do your best during exercise, and you cannot ignore the signal sent by the body. If you have symptoms such as dizziness, dizziness, chest pain, nausea, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, panic, vomiting, etc., you should stop exercise immediately and seek medical treatment in time. If you have continuous and obvious fatigue after exercise, you should appropriately reduce the exercise time or number of times. When you feel that your body is in a good condition, you can exercise appropriately for a while.

Perseverance principle. To achieve a good fitness effect, it is essential to participate in exercise persistently. It is recommended to establish a exercise goal that can be achieved according to your physical health, exercise ability, etc., and formulate a practical exercise plan; we must combine work and rest in life to avoid abandoning the exercise plan due to too busy or overly fatigue; To understand the campaign of "part of life" and persist for a long time.

Avoid exercise risk in advance

Zhang Yimin pointed out that for most people, fitness exercises are safe. However, special groups such as elderly people, children, pregnant women, menstrual women, those who have a large weight, and those who do not suffer from long -term exercise need to pay special attention to avoiding risks before exercise.

People who usually do not exercise often, especially the elderly, must start from lower intensity (about 50%or slightly smaller of about the maximum heart rate), short time (about 10 minutes), long interval (2-3 days per week) After 3-6 months of adaptation, the intensity is gradually improved; children are excited during exercise, but they are prone to fatigue. It is best not to let children perform a certain single exercise and continue for too long; It is not recommended to conduct high -intensity exercises, but to exercise in the range of the body, such as choosing a walk; people with greater weight are not suitable for running to prevent the knee from hurting the knee.

"Inappropriate exercise, such as exercise in bad environments, unexplained exercise, exercise exceeding physiological tolerance, people with innate or acquired cardiovascular disease, etc., may cause and increase the pathological changes of the cardiovascular system, and the cardiovascular vascular Suddenly, sudden death can occur. "Zhang Yimin introduced that the main symptoms of cardiovascular accidents include chest tightness, chest pain, heartbeat discomfort, syncope, abnormal breathing difficulties, etc. Common diseases include coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, congenital cardiovascular abnormalities Wait.

"Generally speaking, if the cardiovascular health is okay, the risk of medium -intensity and physical activity causes cardiac arrest or myocardial infarction is low. Those who died suddenly in exercise are mostly diagnosed or suffer from hidden cardiovascular vessels. Diseases. "Zhang Yimin pointed out that although the incidence of vascular accidents in the center of sports is not high, it is harmful. In order to avoid the occurrence of vascular accidents of the sports center, you should appropriately understand the relevant health knowledge before performing fitness, consciously make full preparation activities, and pay attention to self -protection in the cold or humid environment. Follow the basic principles of difference and step by step, adjust the psychological state, and control the strength of the movement, so as to achieve the best fitness effect.

Tip: The content of this article is for reference only, please refer to the consultation results of regular hospitals!