Diabetes exercise treatment

Sports exercise accounts for an important role in the integrated management of diabetic patients, one of the five driving carriages of diabetes integrated management. The regular movement can increase insulin sensitivity, promote fat consumption, improve cardiopulmonary function, enhance social adaptability, improve mental health, etc., thereby helping to control blood sugar, reduce cardiovascular hazardous incidents.

Although sports exercise has the above benefits, it is also necessary to follow a certain principle. The overall principle is step by step, and it is maintained. The exercise should be carried out under the guidance of related professionals. Before exercise, the necessary health evaluation and exercise capacity assessment can help ensure the safety and scientificity of exercise treatment, and denial will be counterproductive and bring unnecessary dangers.

Which patients are not suitable for exercise treatment? In general, exercise treatment can be performed as long as the condition control is stable. However, severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, etc. Acute metabolism, combined with acute infection, proliferative retinal lesions, severe cardiovascular disease (unstable angina, severe heart law, corporate ischemic attack, etc. Taboo movement, the condition of the condition is stable to gradually resume the movement. For type 2 diabetes patients, as long as it feels good, it is generally not necessary to postpone exercise due to high blood sugar, but if the blood sugar> 16.7 mmol / L is performed during a dramatic physical activity, it should Cautious, make sure it adds sufficient moisture.

Second, which sports projects are suitable for diabetic patients? In fact, there is no "best" sports project, only "most suitable" sports. In principle, it is necessary to adapt to the patient's age, condition, preferences, and physical tolerance. Only the most suitable sports can insist, such as medium intensity sports including health, Tai Chi, cycling, table tennis, badminton and golf Ball, etc. Higher strength sports include fast-paced dance, aerobic aerobics, swimming, cycling, uphill, football, basketball, etc. In addition to the above moderate intensity, if there is no prohibition, there is 2 ~ 3 anti-resistance motion (two exercise intervals ≥48 h), exercise muscle strength and endurance, exercise should include upper limbs, lower limbs, The main muscle groups such as torso, combined with anti-resistance movement and aerobic exercise can achieve greater metabolic improvement.

Third, the recommended amount of exercise, frequency and intensity: recommend adult 2 diabetes patients at least 150 minutes, such as 5 days a week, 30 minutes a day, even a short-time sports (such as 10 minutes), Cumulative 30 minutes / d, which is also beneficial. The intensity of exercise is a bit of labor, heartbeat and breathing are speeding but not urgent, whispering, sweating, but don't sweat, you can, or reach 50% ~ 70% maximum heart rate (220-age).

Fourth, the time of exercise. Do not recommend an empty stomach to exercise, it is recommended to move from around 1 hour after meals, because at this time, there is a high blood sugar, and hypoglycemia is less likely to occur. The exercise time is preferably relatively fixed. If each time is dinner or after breakfast, this is more conducive to cooperation with the treatment plan, keeping blood sugar. When you have sun exposure, cold morning or morning dense fog has not been dissatisfied.

Fifth, precautions in the exercise process. Before exercise, you should formulate sports plan according to your own situation, choose loose, light, breathable clothes, choose fit, comfortable sneakers, thicker cotton socks, with necessary protective gear, such as an ankle, etc. At the same time, you need to carry candy, biscuits, etc. to use hypoglycemia. If it is a patient using insulin, insulin injects insulin in the abdomen before exercise, avoiding limb activity to accelerate insulin, and enhanced, and hypoglycemia is prone to hypoglycemia. If the amount of exercise is large, the dosage of insulin (especially short-acting insulin), can also be appropriately eaten in front of exercise and in motion, and should not be severe, larger movement of the insulin pump, so as to avoid pump Tube is out, better movement mode is a walk, and the gentle movement of the limbs.

During the exercise process, pay attention to the changes of heart rate, can be used in combination with the use of equipment (such as pediat, sports bracelet) to master the intensity strength, if you have thirst, you can drink some warm water, don't drink cold water, so as not to increase the heart And the gastrointestinal burden. If there is a hypoglycemic symptom during exercise, it should be stopped immediately, and immediately take the candy, biscuits, and the like. If there is a fatigue, chest tightness, suffocation, and leg pain, should stop exercising immediately, rest in situ. If the above situation, if you continue to solve your doctor in time.

After exercise, you need to monitor primary blood sugar to master movement strength and blood glucose changes, such as hypoglycemia, can reduce exercise intensity or adjust the hypoglycemic plan. In addition, it should also be checked in time after exercise, there should be red swelling, green, blister, bust, injury, etc.

Other precautions: The exercise is best to travel, and inform the family's sports, carry a condition card and candy, tell the companion hypoglycemia treatment measures, pay attention to drinking water, if you can't take water, you can drink a glass of water before exercise. Drink a cup. Remember not to go bare feet "Stone Health Road.

In short, diabetic patients should develop healthy living habits, cultivate active lifestyle, increase daily physical activities, break the sedentary behavior, reduce the meditation time, and integrate the beneficial sports into daily life.

(Writer: Associate Professor, Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University)

Tip: The content of this article is for reference only, please refer to the consultation results of regular hospitals!