The ownership of feudal land is the total root cause of farmers' poverty and agricultural production in modern times. Before liberation, most of the land in Yongjia was occupied by landlords, while the vast number of poverty -stricken farmers had less or completely nothing. According to the survey before the land reform (referred to as the land reform), the landlords of 2.28%of the total number of rural households, the land of 11.27%of the rural areas, the households occupy an area of 17.46 acres. 27.60%of the land, only 1.63 acres. Thoroughly reforming the feudal land system is the need for liberation of rural productivity, and the most urgent and fundamental requirement of the majority of farmers.
The first representative meeting of the Zhejiang Province of the Communist Party of China held in September 1949 proposed that the preparation of land reform was completed in about one year. On February 28, 1950, the Government Office of the Central People's Government issued the "Instructions on the Reform of Land Reform of the New Liberation Zone and the acquisition of public grains". On April 12, the Wenzhou Land Committee of the Communist Party of China issued the "Plan on the Preparation of Land Reform", which made clear and specific instructions on the content of the investigation, the establishment of organization, and work steps. In accordance with the requirements of the superiors, the Yongjia County Party Committee of the Communist Party of China was fully prepared to carry out the land reform.
The first is investigation and research. According to the relevant instructions of the superiors, the county party committee actively organized forces to conduct comprehensive and systematic investigations and research on the county's land conditions, class relations, rental relationships, and land occupation of all levels. The survey results show that 11 districts in the county can be roughly divided into two different types of areas: one is the coastal plain areas, including Sanxi, Wuyu, Yongqiang three districts and Yongzhong and Quxi. The characteristics of such areas are: the landlord operates industrial and commercial and industrial and commercial operators to rent a large number of land, and the number of employees is very large; many of the workers, staff, and freelancers occupy and rent a small part of the land; farmers have permanent power ( That is, the right to use the land) is more common; there are many public land and public land ("charity field", "Xue Tian", "sacrifice ancestral field", and family fields, and the number of large -scale farmers in individual areas. The other is mountainous and other areas, including Luofu, Shatou, Xikou, Bilian, Fenglin, Qukou, Tengqiao, and Yonglin 8 districts. The characteristics of such areas are: industry and commerce are underdeveloped, there are fewer landlords and industrial and commercial people; land occupation is more concentrated than plain areas, but the use of scattered use is only individual. Due to the small number of mountains, most farmers rely on the operation of mountain goods as a living, and most of the occupants in the mountains are landlords, rich farmers, and middle peasants, and poor farmers occupy very little.
On the basis of the investigation and research, Yongjia County also carried out the work of rowing townships and organizing land. In January 1950, the Provincial Party Committee issued the "Instructions on the Nostalgic Township and Township", which required that the scope of township -level regime must be smaller. On May 5, the county party committee decided to classify 54 towns and villages in the county into 85 townships. After that, the county generally carried out the work of rowing townships. In the township and townships, all townships and villages hold representative meetings, and some also elected the township people's government committee. On this basis, according to the requirements of the "Interim Measures for the Land of Land" issued by the Zhejiang Provincial People's Government in June 1950, the county also carried out the work of organizing land. On the basis of organizing the original field grains and materials, the farmers mobilize the farmers to check and measure them in accordance with the original land registration materials, and return to the households. After landing, a large number of concealed land was found, and more accurate land figures were provided for land reform.
Followed by training cadres. In order to prepare for land reform in the organization, the Provincial Party Committee decided that all cadres participating in land reform must be trained in advance. Provincial, prefecture, and county -level party committees are responsible for training cadres. The Party School of the Provincial Party Committee is responsible for training county and district leadership backbone and land reform team leaders. Cadres and farmers activists. The first phase of the provincial party committee's land reform training class began in May 1950. The local party committee and county party committee also carried out large -scale training cadres from August to October. In the winter of 1950 alone, the county party committee organized 422 people for training 4 times on the training of 422 people. It was selected to send 125 people to the local party committee, and 45 people were sent to the Provincial Party Committee. After training, training cadres have significantly improved in terms of policy level and ideological style.
The third is a typical test. Land reform is a fierce class struggle, and it must be carried out with leadership, planned, and orderly. On June 30, 1950, the Land Reform Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the "Land Reform Law") was officially promulgated, and the implementation of land reform in the new liberation zone in the country has a reliable legal basis. On August 14, the county party committee established the land reform headquarters to guide the land reform work in the county. Wei Junzhe, Liu Zhiliang, Zheng Zhongqing, Guo Mingyuan, and Li Yunhe were members of the headquarters. At the first representative meeting of the Yongjia County of the Communist Party of China, Liao Yirong, deputy secretary of the county party committee, conveyed the superior's spirit of "land reform work" and reported on the topic of Yongjia County's land reform work. On October 13, the county party committee sent four land reform teams to the ancient temples, Luofu, Xiongxi (now 瓯hai District, Wenzhou City), and Wuyi Township for land reform pilot work.
According to the work policy of the Provincial Party Committee's "Be careful and steady forward" and the experience of provincial land reform pilot township experience, the pilot pilots of Yongjia County are mainly divided into five steps:
The first is publicity and education. After entering the pilot township, the land reform team adheres to the mass line, holds a struggle conference and conducts complaint education, mobilize the masses to expose the crime of the landlord class, help poor farmers recognize the history of the landlord's family and the history of the peasants, and the change of the farmers after liberation. Inspired the peasant's class awareness. On this basis, the absorption of farmers' activists and representatives of all aspects to establish and improve the peasant association, making it the right to decide to confiscate and distribute the land property in the land reform. The land reform team successively held various conferences such as the mass meeting, the poverty -stricken agriculture conference, and the peasant congress to publicize the "Land Reform Law" and the justice and necessity of the land reform, and explained to the farmers one by one to the farmers. At the same time, various classes such as small land resences, rich farmers and landlords have also carried out publicity and education. Through various symposiums, policies are held to explain policies to enable everyone to abide by and support the land reform laws. The second is to divide the class. In order to do a good job of this work, the Land Reform team organized a representative conference of the township peasant associations in accordance with the relevant spirit issued by the Central People's Government's "Decisions on Dividing Rural Class Ingredients" to carry out the mobilization and deployment work of propaganda mobilization and deployment. Then hold the village as a unit of the Farmers Association and the villagers' meeting to implement the spirit of the Township Farmers Association, discuss and divide class components. First of all, the landlord's composition is made. The county party committee requires the work team to adopt the policy of unity and education. Education cadres and the masses firmly stand on their positions. At the class composition conference, farmers' active elements came to the stage to start the face -to -face struggle, criticize, and settlement of the landlords, forcing the landlord to admit the exploitation and oppressing the facts, and to confess their guilty, and then announced it. Then evaluate the ingredients of the rich farmers and small land lessons. For the rich farmers, the county party committee requested the work team to strictly grasp it. It mainly criticizes the illegal exploitation and abuse of the rich farmers. Do not generally oppose the exploitation; There is a difference from landlord feudal exploitation. The definition of rich farmers, strictly follow the standards of 25%of the total revenue of the whole family in accordance with its exploitation income, to prevent the wealthy Chinese farmers from being a rich farmer. China Peasant, Poor Farmers, and Employment Farmers were divided into components in the Farmers Association. Finally, the Ministry of Township and the Land Reform Team Department were approved to be announced.
The third is to confiscate the collection. According to the provisions of the Land Reform Law, the landlord's land, farming, agricultural tools, and excess houses and food are confiscated, and the landlords are ordered to hand over all the land, debit, and rental books; , Protect the land and all other property of its own cultivation and hire labor; collect the land of shrine, temples, schools, groups, and industrial and commercial people in rural areas. The land and other production materials that are confiscated and collected shall be received by the Farmers Association.
The fourth is to allocate fruits. The general steps and principles of allocation work are: the village holds a conference in the unit, announces the confiscation of the number of land acquiring land property, and explains the principles and methods of allocation. The uniform allocation standards of the whole township will be distributed and confiscated to the land levels, and the land and property that are collected and confiscated are distributed fairly and reasonably to farmers without land or less land. Education cadres and activists take the lead, focus on unity and concession, fully negotiate, and try to make the distribution reasonable. All villages have set up allocation committees to formulate the principles of allocation, adopt the first division, and self -reported proposal. Finally, the distribution committee will review and approve the distribution plan. Rent landing farmers and loneliness should be taken care of properly except for land. For non -agricultural populations such as handicraft workers and vendors who have difficulty in family, they are out of land and discuss the decision to distribute them by themselves.
The fifth is to summarize experience and organize production. After completing the land distribution, the local land reform team immediately organized the experience of summarizing experience, and repeatedly propagating the land reform to rural cadres to promote the development of production, to do the two major tasks of production and land reform, and stipulated that the village chief leadership production, the farmer's leadership of the land reform Essence At the same time, we also actively organized farmers to carry out mutual assistance cooperation, repair water conservancy and accumulated fertilizer, and strive to develop production.
Through the pilot, the general laws of rural land reform were basically mastered, the experience of leading land reform has been accumulated, and the foundation of the entire land reform has laid the foundation.
In December 1950, the Zhejiang Provincial Party Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to transfer the land reform to the comprehensive development phase according to the instructions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the East China Bureau and Zhejiang in the preparation stage of the land reform. Let go to mobilize the masses and start exercise boldly. " According to the basic conditions of the work of each district, the Yongjia County Party Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to carry out land reform in batches, starting from the plain area with a good foundation, and then broke through the edge mountainous areas. The county's 145 townships and villages are mainly divided into three batches.
From January to February 1951, most of the townships in Sanxi, Wuyu, Luofu, and Yongqiang District were mainly undergoing land reform, with a total of 37 towns and villages. These areas of rural areas are concentrated, the masses have a good foundation, and there are no bandit interference. Therefore, the land reform has been done very smoothly. After more than a month of hard work, the land reform task is basically completed.
From February to April 1951, most of the villages, maple forests, Yonglin, Fujinqiao, and Shatou District were carried out. Since 37 towns and towns in the plain areas, which have just ended the land reform, the purpose of the 78 towns and towns in the 78 townships is clear, the masses are launched quickly, the methods are properly improved, which greatly improves the work efficiency of the land reform.
The third batch was launched on April 20, 1951. The main participation in the land reform was 15 townships in Bilian and Xikou District.
When most of the rural areas in the province were basically completed, the provincial party committee and provincial government made a special deployment of the inspection of the land reform work, and made clear instructions on its purpose, content, steps and methods. In July 1951, Wu Zhizheng, deputy minister of the Provincial Party Committee's rural work department, led 320 people to Wenzhou, and conducted typical tests for inspection of land reform in 4 districts and 24 townships in Yongjia County. After inspection, I believed that the Yongjia Land Reform Test was better, and the masses were fully mobilized and the policies and policies of their superiors were fully launched. On August 7, the county party committee formulated the "Plan on the End of the Land Reform Work in the future" and decided to use the four districts of Luofu, Sanxi, Yongqiang, and Wuyu as the center of the inspection of the land reform. On August 15th, the county party committee held the Land Reform Congress Conference, that is, the work team was sent to inspect the land reform, mainly to check whether the masses were fully mobilized and whether the class composition was wrong. There are some problems in the inspection. The main problems are: First, the existence of "peaceful land reform" in individual villages has a tendency to "peaceful land reform". The second is that there are places of "fake earth reforms" and "clam -raising rice". The cadres are instead of replacing them. Third, very few cadres have serious selfish thoughts, with multiple fruits and even corruption fruit, error -oriented ingredients, and serious mistakes of random, grasping, and even random killing. Fourth, some cadres in the work of land reform are not strict with the policies. The cadres have misunderstandings such as fighting people at the struggle conference and punishing kneeling. Some villages even let landlords wear high hats and listed on the streets. Fifth, some village grassroots organizations are impure and new and old cadres are united. The county party committee made up the classes and corrections to the inspection, and properly resolved it. By the end of December 1951, except for 15 townships in Bilian and Xikou District, Yongjia's land reform and review work basically ended. After review and verification, the county designated 2,183 landlords, 736 rich farmers, 33,463 Zhongnong, 54,957 poor farmers, 2197 households hired farmers, and 2060 households. A total of 28,255.8 acres of land, 3583 cows, 99,710 main agricultural tools, 33,593 excess houses, and 545,000 kilograms of excess houses. There are 1974 households, 2197 poor farmers, and 8588 Chinese farmers to land reform.
While checking the land reform, the work of issuing a certificate was also carried out. By August 1951, most of the county and villages in the county had established a collection of permit issuance committees and issuance groups. On April 4, 1952, the county party committee issued the "Opinions on the Work of the Performance of the entire Union", which further clarified the purpose, requirements, methods, steps, and precautions of the entire collection of certificates. The basic content is: (1) Mobilize the register of the masses. (2) Check the land real estate and finish the list. (3) Fill in the certificate and issue a certificate to destroy the old deed. Subsequently, the county and district governments followed the requirements of the "Opinions" and issued the "All Land Real Estate Certificate" in accordance with the occupation of the land in various towns and villages after the land reform of the townships and villages, which legalized the ownership of the land and houses that the farmers were divided into. By the end of May, there were 119 townships in the county issued land ownership certificates, and 160,000 farmers received land certificates. Through the entire life, the land area was clarified, and the county increased the land of 239,306 acres in the entire county, and the output was 28.53 million kilograms.
In the work of the county, in accordance with the unified deployment of the Central and Provincial Party Committee, the county has resolutely implemented the main route of "relying on poor farmers, hiring farmers, united the agriculture, and to eliminate the feudal exploitation system and develop agricultural production." In the land reform to protect the economy of wealthy farmers, prevent the invasion of industrial and commerce, only confiscate the landlord's land, farming, agricultural tools, excess grains, and excess houses in rural areas. It is also given a land to the landlord, so that they can rely on their labor to maintain their lives. The landlords are treated differently, unite the enlightened gentlemen in the landlord, and focus on cracking down on a few bully landlords. Unlike the land reform in the old liberation zone, the excess land and property of the rich farmers will not be levied, and the policy of protecting the economy of wealthy farmers is adopted. At the same time, pay attention to the handling of Zhongtian. Only three generations of fields are requisitioned. The niche fields within the three generations are not requisitioned. These policies not only promote the recovery of industry and commerce, but also enable rich farmers to produce at ease, but also help unite and stabilize China farmers.
Land reform has been the largest and most thorough reform of Chinese history for thousands of years, opening up the way for socialist construction. After the land reform, Yongjia rural areas have undergone profound changes in politics and economy, which has changed the rural appearance at all, and all aspects present a new weather.
The land reform destroyed the long -term rule of feudal forces in rural areas, and farmers turned over as the owner. Under the leadership of the party and the government, the peasants have recognized that the implementation of land reform is to return to their own land rationally from the landlord. Become the owner of the countryside. The vast number of poor farmers united, fighting for justice against landlords, and accused the landlord class exploit the evil deeds of farmers for a long time, and punished the landlords with blood debts in accordance with the law. During the land reform, rural grassroots organizations have been tested by the practice of struggle and continued to grow. By 1951, the county established 52 township farmers and 508 village peasants, with more than 80,000 members. At the same time, it has also established mass organizations such as militia, women, youth regiments, and children's groups to play a positive role with the landlord class in the land reform movement. A large number of farmers' activists that emerged in the struggle, a large number of leaders and backbones of grass -roots regimes were selected. The peasants really became the pillar of the rural people's regime. They actively participated in various democratic reforms and political struggles in rural areas. Many young and middle -aged farmers participated in the militia organizations, stood up, control the landlords, and defend the victory of land reform. The land reform destroys the feudal land ownership of the landlord class and realizes farmers' land ownership. In the land reform, by confiscating the land and excess property of the landlord, most farmers that have no land and less land are divided into land and other necessary production materials. The land occupied by poverty -stricken employees in the county rose from 27.60%to 46.26%, and the land occupied by Chinese farmers rose from 44.83%to 45.84%, and land owners and rich farmers posted from 13.49%to 3.96%. Through land reform, the farmers have realized their fields, which greatly liberated productivity, and improved the enthusiasm of the majority of farmers. They were actively reclaimed by the slogan of "labor hair loss, patriotism increased production". , Improve the basic construction of farmland such as soil, implement deep cultivation, improve production technology, and timely fight against various natural disasters, so that agricultural production will be recovered and developed quickly. The vast number of rural women have also been liberated from the shackles of the feudal system and participated in production labor and various social activities. In the sound of celebrating the victory of the land reform, 270 districts of Shatou, Bilian, Qukou and other areas have 270 young men and women get married. , Carry out cooperative production increasing competitions. The farmers on the banks of Shuangling Township and the farmers of Lutian Village broke the snow to open the new canal, burn coke 坭 ash, pista mud, and cultivate spring flowers.
The land reform campaign destroyed the monopoly of the feudal landlord class to cultural education and greatly promoted the development of rural culture. After the land reform, with the development of rural economy, the cultural needs of the majority of farmers have become increasingly urgent, and there have been a wave of farmers' enthusiastic learning culture. By April 1951, there were 3,294 winter schools and about 20,000 students in the county. The blackboard newspapers, cultural rooms, and newspaper groups are generally held in rural areas. The development of cultural education has removed the feudal superstitions, rules and abundance habits in rural areas, and played an important role in rural economic development and social progress, and renewed the spirit of the majority of farmers.
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