Sports have an impact on cardiopulmonary health, muscle strength, glucose metabolism, immune system and mental health. New cross-sectional research evidence suggests that there may be close relationships between exercise and intestinal microbial groups.
Intervention research supports the beneficial effects of exercise on intestinal microbial groups. Longitudinal studies have shown that often medium-intensity endurance movements have the most beneficial effect on intestinal microorganisms, but different types of exercise training programs (eg, resistance, intermittent, stretch / flexibility, endurance / aerobic, etc.) to intestinal microbial groups There is a difference in influence. Other factors such as diet, colon transport time, training status, sharing training environment, voluntary, health or disease status, age, gender, etc. are also mixed factors for assessing motion and intestinal flora.
Conversely, the intestinal microbial groups have indirectly affect the various indicators of exercise, recovery and disease model, such as signaling by muscle cytokines, hormones, neuropeptides, and other metabolites, regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Activate, and the influence of metabolic ways related to performance.
It is important to understand the various roles of intestinal microbial groups in sports performance, which is very important for common people and athletes seeking to improve exercise and reduce training recovery time.
This article explains in detail below:
The effect of exercise on intestinal and its microbial group; the association between sports diet and intestinal microbial group; excessive exercise on intestinal function; changes in exercise strength, hormone and microbial group; targeted intestinal microbial group adjustment The effect of physical function; improved food recommendations for intestinal problems during exercise; .....
What is the effect of exercise for intestinal microbial groups?
Recent studies have shown that exercise has a lot of benefits to intestinal microbial groups. It is related to the increase in the number of beneficial microbial species and the enhancement of microbial diversity and the enhancement of short chain fatty acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism.
The frequency of moderate motion can cause greater diversity of thick walls. Including Faecalibacterium Prausnitzii (butyric acid, anti-inflammatory bacteria), TurphiospiosPira, which helps to healthier Lachnospira and Coprococcus members of the intestinal environment.
Percentage of body fat, muscle mass and physical activity are significantly related to several bacterial populations
Studies have found that exercise is higher than the proportion of bacteria that promotes health function in women. F. Prausnitzii (Plussema) and Roseburia Hominis, and Roseburia Hominis, as well as metabolic conditions such as obesity and diabetes.
A study surveyed a microbiometric group of 40 international professional football leagues and compared to the high or low of BMI. The results show that the intestinal microbial diversity of intestinal microbes is significantly increased.
Many other parameters also show significant improved results compared to the control group. These include short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which found that the acetate, propionate, butate and pentyl salts levels in the athletes were significantly higher compared to the control group. "
In short, sports have proven to significantly improve several indicators related to physical performance and health, especially in terms of beneficial bacterial types and their functions.
However, the results of these observational studies can only confirm the association between the training status and the microbial group, and cannot determine the causal relationship.
The association between exercise and intestinal microbial group seems to be two-way. More and more evidence from animal research also indicate an important role in the body function of the intestinal microbial group. The composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbial group may help digest the dietary compound and improve the energy collection during exercise, which can provide a metabolic benefit for athletes during high-strength exercise and recovery.
Observing studies have shown that the metabolic activities and pathways associated with amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism are increased compared to the sedentary subject.
In the intestine, bacteria will ferment the carbohydrates that are not easily digestive into short chain fatty acid acetate, propionate and butyric acid. Training and regular exercise are related to the increase in short chain fatty acid content in human feces, and in animal studies, specific short chain fatty acids are related to improving body function.
Most short-chain fatty acids absorb and help host energy metabolism from the intestines.
The butyrate is mainly used as an epithelial cell in the colon as an energy source.
Acetate is metabolized in muscle tissue, but it can also pass through the blood brain barrier.
Propionate can be used as precursors of glucose synthesis in the liver.
In addition, short-chain fatty acids can improve intestinal barrier integrity, reduce local and systemic inflammation. Precursive research on the preclinical indication that short chain fatty acids may be a key modifier of body function.
It is worth noting that the host may not only benefit from the part of the symbiotic relationship between the exercise period.
At present, the interaction between the intestinal microbial group and the body function is as follows:
Maija Marttinen et al., Nutrients.2020
Sports exercise and intestinal microbial diversity
You may want to know if the exercise will change the microbiological group, or whether a healthy microbial group will make you more active. In fact, this is said to "first with chicken or first egg". Intestinal microbial group-> exercise:
For example, intestinal flora dispensing causes inflammation, resulting in negative emotions, depression, etc., and depression is not conducive to out and actively exercise.
Sports -> Intestinal microbial group:
A number of studies have shown that exercise can actually change your intestinal microbial group.
Women: Sports and Different Dividese
In 2017, a study on women showed that the active activities of women and the difference between the intestinal microbial groups in the sedentary women.
Active participants were selected to perform at least 10 hours of exercise within 7 days during the test. Send a quiet activity in the sedential group, and is selected from the daily life of women who often exercise frequently, 3 times no more than 30 minutes per week.
There was a significant difference between 11 genus (classification levels of bacteria) in sports women and sedentary women. Importantly, sportswoman has a richer promotion of healthy bacteria, including Faecalibacterium Prausnitzii, Roseburia Hominis and Akkermansia Muciniphila.
They also found that "the percentage of physical fat, muscle mass and physical activity are significantly correlated with several bacterial populations."
In other words, there is a positive lifestyle to please some bacteria, which is a positive feedback.
Rugby operators have higher alpha diversity
A study on the Irish male professional rugby athletes show that the alpha diversity of the intestinal microbiological group (bacteria richness, such as how many bacterial species is identified in feces samples) compared to the sedentary control group.
The diversity of intestinal microbial groups is positively correlated with protein consumption and plasma creatine kinase levels, and plasma creatine kinase levels are biomarkers caused by muscle injury caused by exercise.
The Akkermansia bacterial ratio detected in the rugby athlete and the low weight index (BMI) control group is higher than the ratio of the High BMI control group. Compared with the low BMI control group, the content of the proprocal bacteria in the athlete decreased significantly.
From the horizontal level of the big group, Akkermansia and the proprocarpine belly were negatively correlated with obesity.
The difference between the rugby athlete and the sedential control group was also detected on the microbial metabolic level, and the activity of the amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism pathway was increased in the athlete. In addition, the football player's feces scFA (acetate, propionate, and butyric acid) level is higher than the sedential control group.
Athletic bicycle athletes: Regular training
In a competitive bicycle athlete, a cyclist training more than 11 hours a week is more relatively abundant than Popmychoids that are not often trained.
In addition, meta transcriptional analysis showed that the transcription of P. is positively correlated with the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolic pathway. Brazen amino acids, especially leucine, is an essential amino acid that promotes muscle protein synthesis, which can promote recovery after exercise. (For details, see this article 09 - Protein section)
Compared with the amateur bicycle, more fecal Methanobrevibacter Smithii was found in the professional bike. The bacterium is related to the up-regulated metabolism, which is positively correlated with the upregulation of the short-chain fatty acid metabolism pathway in the intestinal microbial group.
Unfortunately, the study has no diet control and non-athlete control group. As the result observed in the cycling person, in a small group of elite race, the manure microbial group is divided into Popocci or proprocacus.
Marathon Athletes: Weve increase
Wayong Spherum in Marathon Athletes increased significantly after marathon. In addition, the same research team uses a macro base analysis using the feces sample from the Super Marathon Athlete and the Olympic Level Rowing Athlete. The results show that the genes associated with lactic acid and propionic acid compared to the sample before exercise.
A follow-up study conducted in mice showed that researchers were separated from the runner's feces, and the mice were perfused. As a result, the mice started more, and the running time on the treadmill increased 13%.
People in strength exercise: promotion of health and anti-inflammatory bacteria
In addition to high-intensity training by professional or competitive athletes, the guidelines for the World Health Organization (WHO) are performed on a weekly medium intensity motion, and the minimum levels are performed at the lowest level, which seems to be sufficient to change the composition of the intestinal microbial group.
Compared with women who are not allowed, the premenopausal, premenopausal, premenopausal, Pushcoplast, etc. These are all kinds of bacterial varies related to promoting health and anti-inflammatory effects.
In addition, different food patterns between exercise groups and sedential groups may affect the composition of the intestinal microbial group. Compared with the long-lasting women, the dietary fiber intake of sports women is significantly higher, sedentary and working meat. The intake ratio is significantly higher. Long-term sporty people: higher flora diversity
In the longest sports intervention so far, the periodic aerobic training of different intensity and methods of similar motion energy on the intestinal microbial groups were studied within 6 months.
A total of 88 sedentary / obese subjects were randomly divided into four groups, including habitual life (control group), non-motorized bicycles actively commute, leisure time, medium intensity movement or vigorous exercise.
Compared with the control group, all the β diversity of all sports groups changed, and the difference between the growth of the flora in the participant group of the strenuous exercise group became small. In other words, the constitution is consistent.
In addition, the alpha diversity of the strenuous exercise group increased in 3 months compared to the control group. This indicates that there may be a more intense exercise to induce a long-situ, the intestinal microbial groups of overweight / obese subjects.
In a study on strenuous exercise, the doorster gates increased, and the thickening straightener doors / placed bacteria decreased. This result is related to athletes, as the increase in the increase in the metabolic conversion of complex glycosaccharides and protein degradation plays a critical role.
Clostridium and Blautia are also reduced. Clostridia plays an important role in a systemic immune response, while Blautia will increase the release of proflect cytokines. Interestingly, the concentration of colon glucose is positively correlated with the propongica, and is opposite to the thickness of the thickness door, the thickness door / pinchometer. In addition, Blautia is relatively related to better systemic insulin sensitivity.
These results emphasize the importance of intestinal substrates to the whole body, especially glucose and protein uptake, may have a positive impact on the intestinal microbial group.
Lensu, S. et al., Metabolites, 2021
In children and the elderly, the relationship between physical activity levels and intestinal microbial groups is also proved.
Children: Surnothalfacies in Athletic Fungus, increased
In the 7-18-year-old children's research queue from the US intestinal project, in control coordination (age, gender and antibiotics and probiotics). Exercise frequency is related to the intestinal microbial group rich in thick walls. In addition, children exercising daily are increased in Clostridia, and the ruts.
Elderly male: related to septic bacteria and Lachnospira bacteria
In the elderly male, the physical activity measured according to the number of steps and self-reports has nothing to do with the microbial alpha diversity, but the physical activity level is an appropriately associated relationship between the gelatus and the Lachnospira genus.
These studies have shown that there is a difference in the composition of the intestinal microbial group between athletes or frequent sports people and the sedentary population.
Athleter flora characteristics may be related to diet
However, some of the characteristics of the inner microbial microbiological groups of athletes and body activities may be interpreted by diet rather than motion.
Athletes often follow the strict diet of supporting training and performance, and extreme motion is usually related to extreme diet. Compared with the normal population, the athletes' protein intake may be much higher. Protein supplements are often used to meet the higher demand of proteins, although the epidemic of protein supplements may also be affected by increased muscle quality and improve performance and recovery.
After ingesting a large amount of protein, the unpractically absorbed protein will enter the colon and promote the growth and selection of specific bacteria.
The 10-week protein supplement (whey separation and beef hydrolyza) increased the abundance of runner propanigtrum and reduced the health-related classification group, including Roseburia SPP, Blautia SPP, and long bifidobacter. However, such changes in the intestinal microbial groups are still unclear on the long - term effects of host health.
Animal study: changes in motion and age, diet, voluntary, individual physiological status, etc.
Few studies focus on voluntary movements on the intestinal microbial groups. In addition to seven experimental research, all studies have used mouse models. These preliminary studies have shown that the sports will affect the composition of the intestinal microbial group.
Rat regular running movements were associated with increased bartyl bacteria and the increase in butyl salt concentration. Other animal studies have shown that by affecting mouse intestinal microbes, daily wheels may improve certain aspects of unhealthy states, such as obesity, diabetes and toxicity caused by diet. These effects include changing the ratio between the strength of the thickness door and the pushpet door. However, this is not always the same between research.
In the motion study of animals, it is almost unanimous to which population is affected by chronic motion. In addition to the positive correlation between exercise and lactobacillus, no other classification group continues to increase in mice or rats that often exercise.
The changes produced by the movement seemed to depends on the individual's physiological state. For example, whether it is obese-hypertensive rat or normal rats, regular forced movements have different effects on microbial groups. Rat movement of high-fat diet is different from the change in microbial groups and the normal diet rats, and the changes in diabetic mice are different from their control mice. In general, these findings show that long-term exercise regulation of microbial groups not only depends on the physiological state of the individual, but also depends on the diet. In addition, another significant difference between animal forced motion and voluntary movement is the amount of exercise. This has been summarized in the data of human cycling and needs to be further studied in animal models.
In addition, age, gender will also present different effects. It is observed that the exercise changes in microbial groups in young rats compared to adult rats. In the study of mice affecting the effects of intestinal microbial groups, a common discovery is to increase α diversity.
Dietary intake or supplement intervention exercise and microbial association during exercise
When studying human intestinal microbial groups, it is difficult to study sports and diet, respectively. This relationship becomes more complicated due to changes in diet (for example, the increase in protein intake of resistance training athletes or increased intake of the endurance athletes increases, and the increase in overall energy and nutrient intake).
Why is some sports people and the flora in the sedentary population?
High protein + dietary fiber less = motion change bacteria invalid
One study in South Korea shows that high protein / restriction dietary fiber and health sedential diversity or beneficial bacteria have no significant difference. However, when the protein or dietary fiber intake meets KRDA (Japanese recommended dietary allowance), the relative abundance of intestinal microbial diversity and beneficial bacteria is significantly different from healthily sedentary subjects. These results show that the positive impact of exercise on the intestinal microbial group depends on the intake of protein and dietary fiber. The results also show that the problem of adequate nutrients should be solved before supplementing benefits.
Differences in the dietary intake of the population may explain some inconsistencies observed between different research results.
In a clinical study in South Korea, total protein intake is negative with microbial diversity, and the high protein intake of Irish professional rugby players is associated with microbial diversity. Korean athletes do not meet dietary fiber intake dietary suggestions (recommended ≥ 25 g / day; bodybuilder's median intake 19 g / day, endurance athlete 17 g / day), and Irish football player's fiber intake It is recommended (median intake 39 g / day).
Unsatched dietary fibers are important energy and carbon sources of intestinal microbial groups, and is a substrate for short chain fatty acid synthesis, and is a key contributor of microbial diversity. The high protein diet is combined with the low dietary fiber diet, which may be harmful to the intestinal microbial groups, rather than intake of high proteins separately.
Nutritional supplement interventional exercise and microbial association
In addition, limited data mainly from animal studies indicate that popular motive nutrition supplements such as caffeine, branched chain amino acids, sodium bicarbonate, and carnitine can change the composition of intestinal microbial groups. The results of a large research queue show that the exercise is associated with the increase in Clostridium and the genus.
Other small sample research
Although there are several studies that may lack a small sample group that may lack enough statistical efficacy, it is interesting that it is usually higher in the subjects such as Akkermansia and Prevotella. However, due to the number of clinical studies remain limited, participants' demographics and dietary intake (especially dietary fiber intake) are very different, so they should be cautious.
Nutrient changes before and after exercise, but the flora changes
The effect of exercise on the intestinal flora needs to consider the dietary factors during exercise, then will the nutrient elements change significantly before and after exercise?
A research team showed that the exercise training intervention has changed the intestinal microbial group of Finnish women who have not been trained, while eating habits, weight, or body ingredients have not changed.
The authors have proven that endurance movement has changed overweight, and sedentary galvanic microbial groups, these women participated in a sports intervention, including 3 times a week, lasts for six-week bicycle training. Studies have shown that after training intervention, total intake or constant nutrients or dietary fibers have no difference.
However, endurance motion increases VerrucomicRobia and Akkermansia relative abundance and reduce the number of deformation bacteria related to inflammation in the intestine. In addition, the deformation bacteria and the migrate door have a reaction to the exercise and have nothing to do with age, weight, and body fat percentage and food intake. Another study for 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training program significantly increased the relative abundance of the proporal bacteria, but in the long-lasting woman, nutrient intake did not change.
The following table summarizes the effects on sports and / or sports diet on intestinal microbial groups.
Mohr AE, ET Al., J Int Sop Sports Nutr. 2020
Sports impact on intestines
In addition to affecting the intestinal microbial group, exercise will also affect gastrointestinal physiological functions. Although exercise is usually a useful or "irritating" pressure, it will become harmful if the duration and intensity increases. Physiological effects after exercise
The sports will activate autonomic nervous systems, increase the cycle concentration of cortisol and catechin, adrenaline and norepinephrine. This can result in a decrease in blood flow flowing to the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in hypoxia, ATP depletion and oxidative stress. These roles will destroy the intestinal barriers, increase intestinal permeability, endotoxemia, nutrient consumption and inflammation. The gastrointestinal tract should deactivate the pressure activation by releasing neurotransmitters associated with gastrointestinal disorders, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), neuropeptide Y and Dopamlamine. These physiological effects are proportional to the intensity, duration and frequency of motion.
Long-term exercise may cause gastrointestinal disorders
Although low to moderate strength promotes gastrointestinal motility and transportation time, but severe [> 60% maximum oxygen)] or long (≥ 2 hours) movement may have reversed effects, and cause acute Gastrointestinal disorders. Regular exercise can promote adaptation to maintain intestinal blood flow and reduce inflammation, of course, recovery must also be sufficient.
Why is the stomach intestinal problem in the endurance athlete?
The gastrointestinal problem is very common, especially in the endurance athletes, 30-50% of athletes have symptoms of gastrointestinal intestines. These symptoms can be physiologically, mechanically, psychohydrous, nutrient, including blood flow, increased intestinal permeability, increased increasing intensiveness and inflammatory cytokines, and the gastric emptying is insufficient.
However, outside the endurance run, rarely assess the symptoms of gastrointestinal tract. For example, a study of soldiers who participated in the 4-day strict cross-country skiing march showed that the intestinal permeability increased, but did not report gastrointestinal symptoms, which made the impact on subjective experiences and the impact on sports performance are unclear.
The intestinal epithelium has a high turnover rate (3-5 days), which requires a lot of energy and nutrients. Athletes who have high-intensity training in cases without sufficient fuel may have intestinal integrity and dysfunction and gastrointestinal symptoms. In particular, the intake of habitual carbohydrate intake will increase to long-term and continuously movement.
Depending on the type of motion, strength, age, and other factors, 20-50% of athletes will have gastrointestinal symptoms and increase as exercise intensity.
Negative impact of high-strength exercise
In the study of three acting male iron people, in the study, 93% of people report digestive digestive dysfunction, and two participants have to abandon the game for serious vomiting and diarrhea. These are common in athletes, as the body temperature rises high during vigorous exercise, blood flows from the gastrointestinal tract to peripheral muscles and organs such as hearts and lungs. The re-distribution of blood flow away from the intestines and heat damage to the intestinal mucosa can cause the intestinal barrier to damage, which will continue to be inflammatory.
Among the healthy young adult male cyclists performed 4-10 hours of endurance exercise weekly, only 70% of the maximum workload will have internal organs to have insufficient intracence, which will cause gastrointestinal circulation reduction, intestines Turnotactivity increases and small organs are damaged.
Another study showed that people at 70% VO2MAX caused by 60-70% of internal organs, and when the blood flow decreased by 50%, the ischemia caused by exercise caused increase in intestinal permeability.
Add a question, such as a star, Net red for beauty, limit carbon water intake, and a large number of high-intensity exercise to achieve rapid slimming effect, in fact, damage to intestinal health, may cause systemic inflammatory response, do not blindly emulate.
However, research is mainly concentrated in acute intake during exercise (previous and period) on gastric intestinal symptoms, rather than habitual diet, although more and more athletes and researchers pay attention to avoid food strategies, such as low fermentation Glycan, diose, monosaccharide, FODMAP diet or glutenary diet.
Dramatic sports -> Gastrointestinal disorders -> Affect intestinal microbial group
The oxidation of the gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal barrier dysfunction also affects the intestinal microbial group. The translocation of LPS (Gram-negative bacteria caused by intestinal permeability) can lead to endotoxemia and triggered the secretion of acute cytokines into the gastrointestinal tract, which may affect the intestinal microbial group and further Amazing condition.
In turn: intestinal microbial disorder -> Gastrointestinal disorders
In contrast, microbutanic acid salts and propionate can be used as an energy source of coli cells, reducing mucosal degradation, gastrointestinal permeability, and inflammatory cytokines.
Intestinal microbial group can be used as a biological marker
Due to the modification of microbial composition and diversity, the intestinal microbial group composition can be used as a biological marker that can be used as a motion metabolism and systemic pressure.
For example, a study of a study of the acute effect on serum and fecal metabolic group and intestinal microbial groups showed that the metabolic pathway of skeletal muscle substrate utilization and serum carbohydrate metabolites was increased, increased feces and amino acid metabolites. And increase the abundance of Clostridium. Therefore, the dramatic changes in microorganisms and metabolic spectrums provide information about motion on gastrointestinal tract and metabolism. In addition, considering the effects of exercise on intestinal microbiological groups and demand for food-centered dietary strategies, the gastrointestinal symptom assessment can supplement information about intestinal microbial groups.
The effect of gastrointestinal symptoms caused by intestinal flora in motion
The general athletes take a lot of monosaccharides in sports training to minimize glycogen and maintain blood sugar while minimizing the intake of dietary fibers and resistant starch to prevent gastrointestinal disorders. Insufficient dietary fiber and resistant starch intake may result in reduced bowel movements, resulting in decline in intestinal function, and also reduces the diversity of intestinal microbial groups.
In addition, athors consume more animal proteins than non-athletes to meet the needs of muscle hyperplasia. Protein intake can lead to excess of nitrogen substrate in the intestinal microorganism, resulting in a corruption product such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, amine, phenol, thiol, and hydrazine. As the emeralde is through the intestines, the carbohydrate content is reduced, and the rotted fermentation becomes more harmful.
In fact, protein intake is excessively, and the fermented dietary substrate in the colon can result in colon mucosa DNA damage.
High-strength exercise through blood affects intestinal microbial group
In addition, high-strength motion stimulating blood is redistributed from intestinal organs to muscles while they actively breathe. Frequent redistribution of blood may disturb the intestinal microbial groups through visceral low perfusion and ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. Therefore, there is a need to study a long-term effect of specific motion types and athlete diet on intestinal microbial groups.
The intestinal microbial group plays a variety of roles in gastrointestinal functions, intestinal immunity, endocrine, and regulating oxidative stress and hydration levels, etc. many.
SCFA generated by microbial groups affects a series of hosting processes
In the colon and the creature, the complex plant-derived polysaccharide is digested, followed by fermentation of intestinal microorganisms (such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacter, Clostrich, Puchobacterium) to short-chain fatty acids and gases, these gases are also specialized Bacteria (such as reducing acetate) is used as carbon and energy, sulfate reduction bacteria, and methyl bacteria. The molar ratio of acetate, propionate and butyl titrates in the intestine is about 60:20:20. The composition of the intestinal microbial group, the metabolism between microbial groups, and the number and type of major dietary macro and micronutrients determine the type and quantity of the short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microbial group.
The more polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, resistant starch, and dietary fibers, the more of the plants, the more of these bacteria, the more difficult foods, the more, the fatty acids can be fermented. The short chain fatty acid generated by the microbial group affects a series of host processes, including control colon pH, which in turn affects microbial group composition, intestinal motion, intestinal permeability, and epithelial cell proliferation.
Lensu, S. et al., Metabolites, 2021
Sport strength pressure, hormone and microbial group change
The pressure caused by exercise changes to break down metabolites, cytokines and intestinal microbial groups, which may lead to gastrointestinal disorders, anxiety, depression and polar performance. The intestinal microbial groups have basically role in many ways of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function.
Allison Clark & Núria Mach, J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016
Appropriate intestinal barrier function is critical to maintaining health and immunity. However, the elite athletes of training and competition will experience physical and emotional pressure, leading to physiological steady state changes, stimulate SAM (sympathetic nerve-adenodaryne shaft) and HPA axis (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axes) high strength exercise Gastrointestinal disorders.
During the vigorous exercise, the athlete's body temperature will rise, and the blood flows from the gastrointestinal tract to the surrounding muscles and organs during vigorous exercise, such as hearts and lungs. The re-distribution of blood flow away from the intestines and heat damage to the intestinal mucosa can cause the intestinal barrier to damage, which will continue to be inflammatory. Long-term vigorous sports increases the transmugation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the gastrointestinal tract to initiate an immune response, which usually results in increased acute cytokines and intestinal permeability.
Due to increase in active oxygen (ROS) and changes in intestinal microbial groups (so-called ecological disorders), intestinal permeability may become worse.
The gastrointestinal tract responds to stress by releasing hormones such as GABA, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and dopamlamine, which can cause gastrointestinal disorders, anxiety, depression, food intake reduction and pressure response capability. In contrast, the butyrate and propionate produced by the microbial group can increase across upper skin resistance, thereby improving the intestinal barrier function and reducing inflammation.
The gastrointestinal tract should deal with stress by releasing hormones such as GABA, NPY and Dopamine
GABA, this is the body's main inhibition of neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, regulating blood pressure and heart rate and its important role in various gastrointestinal functions, such as moving, gastric emptying and transient food. Anxiety, depression, pain and immune response. Moderate motion can increase the GABA level in the hypothalamus, thereby reducing the restrain blood pressure, heart rate and sympathetic tension. When swimming in 25 ° C, the GABA level of rat hippocampus was found (70% of the baseline).
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) will also be released in the gastrointestinal tract to be released in response to various pressure stimulation (eg, strenuous movement) and play a role in weakening the HPA axis.
Note: The neuropeptide Y is a peptide of 36 amino acids, located in the entire intestinal shaft, is the most common neuropeptide in the brain, play a role in pressure recovery and inflammation.
12 neuropeptide Y serum levels of 12 well-trained rowing athletes were detected, and the concentration of the neuropeptide Y was significantly increased. Although few studies have studied the reactions of serum and hippocampal NPY levels, these results showed its role in reducing the pressure response during strenuous exercise.
Dopamine (norepinephrine and adrenaline precursor) can also be synthesized during gastrointestinal pressure.
The generation of dopamine depends on several factors:
The level of the precursor tyrosine directly produces a pressure type experience experienced by the intestinal bacteria of dopamine.
A variety of dopamine receptors in the entire intestine show that it plays a role in the intestinal - brain shaft. Gastrointestinal, spleen and pancreas produce a large amount of dopamine. Dopamine synthesized restriction enzyme-prone hydroxylase was found in human gastric epithelial cells, indicating that its function is present outside the neuronal transfer in the brain. Customary movements per day for approximately 1-2 hours have been proven to increase the level of dopamine in the brain.
How do intestinal microbial groups directly interact with the surrounding tissue (such as the gastrointestinal mucosal layer)?
NT-adrenaline (NE) has shown the gallet hydrophobacterial (Bordtella), Campylobacter Jejuni, Helicobacter Pylori, Lis Listeria and Salmonella Enterica have a direct impact.
Some methods of norepinephrine promoting pathogenic bacteria growth is to promote E. coli adhere to the intestinal wall by increasing the expression of the viral Factor K99 fungus adhesion and the expression of the drug-free Salmonella. Then, these bacteria are then easier to infect.
In addition, norepinephrine also increases the level of non-pathogenic E. coli and other Gram-negative bacteria.
How does the microbial group regulate the pressure response caused by the movement?
A study recently revealed that the gastrointestinal tract and whole body health are very important, unique microorganism-host interaction.
In colitis mouse model, voluntarily run 6 weeks will alleviate symptoms, and forced treadmill running will increase intestinal inflammation and clinical results. Compared with the 6-week forced treadmill running group, it is significantly reduced in voluntary runners compared to the 6 weeks.
In addition, compared with the sedential group, Ruminococcus Gnavus has a clear role in intestinal mucus degradation, as well as increased Docklace, Oscillospira and Dung.
This preliminary study for sports and pressure animals shows that exercise can change the composition of the microbial group and metabolic function, which may have a positive or negative impact on the flora according to exercise strength and voluntary.
The effect of targeted intestinal microbial group adjustment to physical function
Due to nutrition, genetic and environmental factors, it may be difficult to analyze the exact role of intestinal microbial group on exercise performance in human clinical research. The aseptic animal model overcomes many of the challenges and has been used to prove the role of the intestinal microbial group on the performance of the body.
Lost mice with intestinal microbial groups, exercise decline
Swimming capabilities of sterile mice without specific pathogens (SPF), sterile (GF) and fragile propgonomers. GF mice from swim to exhaustive time, SPF mice, indicating that the performance will decline without intestinal microbial groups. A similar discovery of GF mice decreased compared to SPF mice.
Other studies: mouse exercise in mice lost in the intestinal microbial group has no effect, but the muscle function declines
In contrast to the above, there is no difference in the body performance of GF mice and SPF mice at exercise to exhaustion. However, GF mice showed a decrease in muscle mass than SPF mice, and the reduction in muscle fibers and the decrease in muscle strength. The muscle atrophy of GF mice is related to mitochondrial biosynthesis disorders and oxidative capacity. The transplantation of the intestinal microbial group of SPF mice restored the muscle mass of GF mice, which increased the skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength of GF mice with short chain fatty acid mixture compared to untreated GF mice.
Antibiotic treatment greatly changed the composition of intestinal microbial groups
Studies have proved that the intestinal microbial groups are exhausted after spectral antibiotics, while reducing the endurance operation time of mice, and after recovering the microbial group, the endurance capacity will return to normal. The changes in endurance capacity are independent of muscle mass, muscle fiber type, or mitochondrial function, but related to changes in muscle glycemic levels, recovery after recrypting.
A variety of studies have reported a similar found that the treadmill running hours of mice treated with multiple antibiotics were shorter than the untreated control group.
The impact of SCFA and its role of sports performance
Microbial SCFA is produced in the intestine by fibers with different substrate availability. The running time of mice that fed a fermented fiber reduced mice was significantly shortened than the mice fed highly fermented fibers, which indicate that the microbial group and its substrate are related to the body function.
In order to further explore the assumption of SCFAs in the performance capability, mice the antibiotic treatment were subcutaneously injected with acetate or butyric acid. The infusion of acetate rather than the butyrate improves the adverse reactions caused by the vigorous movement caused by antibiotics.
Aseptic animals are of course an extreme model that may not explain a slight difference observed in human microbial groups. However, the study of sterile animal model has established a causal relationship between intestinal microbial groups and physical functions.
Overall, the disorders of intestinal microbial groups appear to effectively restore the movement of rodents and skeletal muscle parameters.
In addition, the difference in intestinal microbial groups or the lack of intestinal microbial groups can regulate the ability of muscle structure, muscle strength, and / or energy utilization.
Which sports can improve your microbial group?
Physical activities are divided into both power and endurance, depending on how your body generates energy to maintain your sports performance.
Strength exercise is usually high, such as weightlifting, sprint and boxing. These movements enhance the muscle mass by exercising the oxygen pathway of the cells. That is to say that your muscles utilize its limited glycogen reserves to make ATP (muscle fuel) without using oxygen.
Recent studies have shown that lactic acid produced during aerobic exercise is circulated into the intestinal cavity, providing selective advantages for species of lactic acid in the colon. The results of this groundbreaking work show that during high-intensity exercise, the host provides fuel in the form of lactic acid, which produces metabolites, such as propionate, beneficial to sports hosts.
This is different from the endurance movement, and aerobic exercise allows the body to move at a lower strength, but the exercise time is much longer, such as long run, cycling, and skiing, such motion muscles use oxygen to convert fat and sugar into ATP fuel.
Measuring the most popular method of cardiovascular health is V02 maximum, it can view the maximum amount of oxygen that your body can use during vigorous exercise. Used to evaluate endurance performance and can be significantly improved by high strength movement.
Several studies have shown that the relationship between microbial groups and cardiopulmonary health can explain more than 20% of the changes in "Classified Abundance" (microbial group identified bacterial diversity). Note that these changes are independent of other factors, including age, fat intake, and carbohydrate intake.
Aerobic exercise on microbial groups and benefits
Studies have shown that aerobic exercise is good for your microbial group, including the increase in benefits and overall diversity.
Repeated aerobics can increase the gastrointestinal transshipment time of healthy individuals and middle-aged patients with chronic constipation.
Aerobic exercise also increases the SCFA concentration of the feces to reduce the pH of the colitis.
In addition, as a motion by-product and metabolites (e.g., lactic acid) in the whole body, it may be filtered through the intestinal filtration and as some bacteria classification groups (such as Wei Yongtian) energy source.
Oxygen motion type and suggestion
Aerobic exercise is long and stable to ensure oxygen for your muscles so that they can produce fuel (ATP). This includes any movement that can improve the heart rate and maintain a heart rate for a long time.
For example: walking, jogging, dancing, slow cycling, elliptical machine and gym rowing machine, hiking, swimming, etc. are both aerobic exercise. However, the intensity and duration of exercise varies depending on the overall health level of the body.
The aerobic movement is long. Relax, stick to it, your body will adapt.
NHS has released adult sports suggestions:
At least 150 minutes medium aerobic exercise, such as cycling or quick walk
2 days or more power exercise per week, you can exercise all major muscles (leg, buttocks, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders and arms)
Moral intensity and severe aerobic exercise per week - for example, 30 minutes of running, 30 minutes, faster, 50 minutes, is equivalent to a secondary aerobic exercise of 150 minutes.
2 days or more power exercise per week, you can exercise all major muscles (leg, buttocks, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders and arms)
Eating advice on intestinal problems during exercise
The appropriate training program aims to balance the whole body pressure factors experienced by the elite athlete and personalized diet plan to increase the performance and reduce the pressure caused by the motion. The degree of adjustment of certain nutrients corresponds to its duration, the overall nutritional status of athletes, the type and intensity, physiological condition, and the composition and function of the intestinal microbial group. Since the pressure response of elite athletes is quite complex (from intestinal leakage to decomposition metabolism and depression), it is difficult to define standard diet plans.
In general, many elite athletes are encouraged to take a large number of simple carbohydrates and proteins and small amounts of fat and fibers to provide fast energy sources while avoiding potential digestions, such as high fiber diet sometimes, swelling and bloating . Elite players' diet plans are also based on certain micronutrient consumption, such as iron, calcium, amino acids, essential fatty acids and antioxidants.
Diet design should consider intestinal microbial groups
Since the diet strongly affects the composition and function of the microbial group, the intestinal microbial group can improve the pressure response of the athlete and improve the performance by nutrient treatment. It can be assumed that each diet plan may be accompanied by synchronous adjustments of the microbial group. Another important consideration when designing personalized diet for athletes is to understand how the microorganism changes over time.
Currently and future athletes or regular exercise programs should consider the dietary strategy based on their potential effects of intestinal microbial groups, including sports-centric dietary strategies (eg, protein supplements, carbohydrate loads) to intestinal microbial groups Impacts and influence in intestinal dietary strategies.
Dietary strategy for performance, in addition to intake of probiotics, probiotics and synthetic, intake sufficient dietary fiber, multiple protein sources, and emphasize unsaturated fat, especially Omega-3 fatty acids, to optimize the health of athletes Performance.
Protein is the main component of skeletal muscle. However, specific amino acids are different in terms of the absorption and decomposition of the liver and skeletal muscle and their ability to regulate the synthesis of muscle protein synthesis.
The essential amino acid, especially branched chain amino acid (BCAA), is essential for muscle protein synthesis, and more than necessary amino acids produce a larger muscle protein synthesis reaction. Therefore, dietary proteins affect protein utilization and skeletal muscles to synthesize the synthesis metabolism.
Supplemental leucine results in a significant increase in plasma leucine and total branched chain amino acid concentration, and improving endurance performance and upper limb strength, affecting plasma zerine: branched chain amino acid ratio. The supplement of BCAA is also used to modulate the effects of fatigue during exercise by changing the production of brain neurotransmitters (such as 5-HTP, dopamine and norepinephrine). Since the lack of evidence, it is impossible to make recommendations for BCAA types or quantities that athletes should take.
The protein that the athlete may need is twice the general population.
The results of maintaining protein synthesis, energy generation, immune function, and intestinal integrity and motion caused.
This is more important for athletes who endurance and resistance training. The endurance athlete may need to take more protein after the recovery period, especially when endurance movement is carried out in the fasting state, as this may increase myocarin hydrolysis.
Although variations depending on diet and physiological factors, such as digestibility, amino acid quantity and composition, food matrix, and other nutrients, about 10% of proteins are not digestible, may reach the protease secreted by intestinal bacterial secretion by intestinal bacterial hydrolysis.
Hughes rl, et al., Adv Nutr. 2021
Regarding the intestinal microbial group metabolism, amino acids can be classified according to their fermentation metabolites: sulfur amino acid, aromatic amino acid and tryptophan.
Adverse effects of excess protein intake
These metabolites include branched fatty acids and short chain fatty acids, ammonia, sulfides, indole and phenolic compounds. Although some of these metabolites (such as SCFA and indole) may have beneficial effects such as intestinal integrity, other metabolites (such as ammonia and moltol) reduce intestinal epithelial integrity. Excess protein intake may result in a level of protein hydrolyzabolites that exceed host absorption, transformation or detoxification of harmful metabolites, leading to adverse effects on intestinal barrier function, inflammation, and colon health.
Non-protein components help the protein synthesis reaction after exercise
Another area is the effect of all food proteins and protein supplements, as all foods have the same or better synergistic effect. For example, compared with the egg whitening compared to the egg whitening, it can lead to more amino acid intake and post-motion-induced myoblands synthesis, indicating non-protein components (eg, lipid, carbohydrates) , Micronutrients and other biologically active compounds) contribute to protein synthesis of protein after exercise.
Excess protein supplements increase colorectal cancer risks
Protein supplements include branched chain amino acids and taurine added to the energy beverage, typically being used by athletes to enhance the synthesis metabolism and adaptability of motion on skeletal muscle, and promote recovery. Excess taurine can result in a concentration of taurine chloric acid (TCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is related to the risk of colorectal cancer; however, these supplements have a sports intestinal microorganism. The impact of the group is unclear.
Glutamine exercise a few days ago, high protein, low-carbohydrate diet can cause a decrease in plasma glutamine concentration after exercise. However, the glutamine supplement has no support for scientific research on the strict control of healthy and nutritional athletes. In addition, researchers pointed out that glutamine supplements should depend on the symptoms (ie, the plasma glutamine level is low, and intestinal leakage).
The new central fatigue hypothesis indicates that when the level of serotonin is increased, the fatigue will begin, which may be that many athletes take tyrosine supplements to prevent their consumption, although the recommended supplement is not determined. Tyteine or 4-hydroxylatine can be synthesized from phenylalanine in vivo, existed in many high protein foods, such as soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanut, almond, avocado, milk, cheese Yogurt and sesame.
Intestinal microbial groups by increasing the bioavailability and absorption of dietary proteins, and increase muscle protein synthesis affecting muscle function
There is evidence that intestinal microorganisms help protein absorption and utilization. For example, probiotic supplements (subharidacillus) enhance the bioavailability of plant proteins, increase the concentration of the essential amino acid and branched amino acid to a concentration comparable to the animal protein. In addition, when administered with the protein, probiotic condensate (GBI-30, 6086) reduces epithelial cell inflammation, improves nutrient absorption, and produces proteases that increase human amino acid absorption. These effects can reduce muscle injury and promote muscle recovery, thereby improving adaptability and performance.
It should be noted that the bacteria are fermented amino acids, but their metabolic animals and plant proteins are different. Each diet plan is accompanied by synchronous adjustments of microbial composition and function. Therefore, the microbial groups of puree, veggies, eggs, and red meat intake are different.
A number of studies have shown that adding resistive starch in high protein diet can counteract high protein intake, further illustrates the importance of intake sufficient dietary fiber on intestinal and overall health.
There is no doubt that sufficient carbohydrate consumption is essential for heavy training programs and successful exercise.
How to supplement the carbohydrate?
For athletes who have trained for more than 2 hours a day, the intake of dietary carbohydrates is 7 to 12 g / kg per day, and fat intake is usually less than 1 gram / kg per day (20% of total calories).
Carbohydrate restores muscle and liver glycogen storage in long-term vigorous exercise, reducing the level of pressure hormone, such as cortisol, and can limit immunosuppression associated with high intensity motion. High carbohydrate diet (8.5 g / kg / d; 65% of total energy intake) and free food carbohydrate can reduce fatigue and improve body function and emotion during high-strength training.
A large number of simple carbohydrates in front of exercise and exercise
For athletes's diet, a large amount of simple carbohydrates are inserted before exercise to maintain glucose steady state, and low fibers in front of exercise to reduce gastric intestinal discomfort, but also supplement that plant-based high-fiber diet may decrease Energy supply. Simple carbohydrates (for example, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and palobes) can reduce fatigue, improve motion performance, and promote moisture absorption and maintain moisture.
Ingestion isometric fructose and glucose, optimize fructose absorption reduction discomfort
However, glucose and fructose loads and proportion of fructose and glucose will affect intestinal microbial fermentation and gastrointestinal stress. Combination of glucose and fructose results in a higher carbohydrate oxidation rate than ingestion of single carbohydrate, reducing the consumption of endogenous energy during exercise. Ingestion isometric fructose and glucose optimize fructose absorption, reducing microbial fermentation, thereby reducing gastric intestinal discomfort symptoms.
Lactose increases exercise performance and recovery
Lactose can also be used as a good fuel source before exercise, in motion and movement to improve movement performance and recovery capabilities, and may also promote the beneficial effect on intestinal microbial groups, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacillus increase.
High carbohydrate diet does not improve the immune function, and it does not prevent the plasma glutamine concentration decreased after a large number of training.
The diet rich in simple and refined carbohydrates does not promote healthy intestinal microbial groups, nor does it produce a useful short-chain fatty acid.
More research is needed to understand the ability of microbial groups to extract nutrients from the diet and include metabolism changes in the host.
Generally, there is a total of 4 grams per 1,000 calories, that is, 25 grams of adult women, 38 grams of adult men.
The low dietary fiber supply is associated with a lower microbial diversity, less short-chain fatty acid production and less anti-pathogen, all of which may have hazardous consequences for hosts.
Athletes or sports exercise can increase the intake of plant foods (such as whole valley, beans, vegetables, fruits and nuts), while reducing processing from high adding sugar, refining carbohydrates and fat at recovery and training period The energy of food, there is adequate dietary fiber intake, because high fiber diet can lead to gastrointestinal discomfort, such as abdominal dissatisfaction, flatulence before fierce training or competition.
Abdominal distension is referring: "The belly is like balloons?" "It seems to be pregnant?" - may be bloating troubles. In addition, dietary fiber and a large amount of vegetable food seem to inhibit bacteria from the protein to produce harmful metabolites, which emphasizes intake. Sufficient composite carbohydrates to maintain the importance of fermentation of the intestinal microbioma carbohydrate.
Fat and most unsaturated fatty acids
The fat consumption of athletes is often very low, accounting for 15-30% of meal energy. The increase in fat metabolism during long-term exercise (30-50% dietary energy) may have a glycogen conservation and may improve endurance performance and health.
High-fat intestinal nutrients can reduce intestinal infusion caused by intestinal perstainment, which causes intestinal inflammation, bacterial translation and intestinal damage.
Hard fat diet
On the other hand, the high-fat diet can result in an increase in behavior of similar anxiety, selective damage exploratory, cognitive, cognitive behavior, nerveitis destroyed the marker of intestinal barrier function, and increased compared with high-fat dietary mice Circulating endotoxin and lymphocyte expression.
In humans, fat-rich diet (62% diet energy) may be harmful to immune function compared to high carbohydrate diet (65% diet energy).
These authors compared 10 unmarried young men to eat carbohydrate diet during 3-4 days of endurance training, and 10 high-fat diet. NK cell activity of athletes of high-fat diet is low.
Note: NK cells dissolve a certain amount of tumor target cells
Omega-6 multi-unsaturated fatty acid
It can change the fluidity of the cell membrane and indirectly affect the immune function, including reducing the production of IL-2 and inhibiting mitogen-induced lymphocytes proliferation, thereby generating potential adverse immune functions during exercise during exercise.
Omega-3 multi-unsaturated fatty acid
Its optimal dose is about 1-2 g / d, and the ratio of twenty carbonyl carbon acid with twenty-doliniene is 2: 1, which may reduce the production of ROS during exercise.
The effect of high-fat diet on exercise is not clear
So far, due to the contradictions of the results, it is difficult to add any clear suggestions to the athlete to supplement the number and duration of Omega-3. At present, the impact of high-fat diet on subsequent exercise is ambiguous, and information about the pressure individual is lacking.
Most importantly, ingestion of high fat and calorie diet and chronic "low" systemic inflammation, intestinal permeability and plasma LPS increase and total bacterial diversity decreases and relative proportion of propongica and clostridia. Therefore, it seems that high-fat diet may also cause an unfavorable change in intestinal microbial groups.
Vitamins and antioxidants
Athletes usually do not supplement vitamins and other antioxidants, but it is recommended that athletes should consider increment of antioxidants such as vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and polyphenol to reduce ROS formation and lipid peroxidation.
Supplementary polyphenols (as a broccolprofen substitute) with blueberries and green tea extracts have not changed the established inflammation and oxidative stress, but increase the metabolites of the intestinal bacterial polyphenol metabolism (such as Masonic acid salts, 4- Hydroxya uric acid, 4-methylcethenol sulfate) and runners have resumed ketones during 3 days.
It is not recommended to supplement individual trace nutrients or high doses of simple antioxidant mixtures.
Although there is no negative impact report, the diet of athletes rich in polyphenolic extract (blueberries and green tea) did not alleviate the physiological pressure brought by strenuous exercise, nor did not increase recovery speed.
Indeeding a large dose of individual vitamins (not rare in athletes) may be more disadvantaged, because most vitamins are mainly used as a coenzyme. Once these enzyme systems are saturated, the free form of vitamins produce toxic effects. Therefore, complex antioxidant compounds should be obtained by incremental intake of fruits and vegetables during exercise.
Conventional beneficial bacteria include bifidobacterium and lactobacillus, although other bacteria studied in athletes include Bacillus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weather or yeast.
The health benefits of probiotics and the impact on sports effects
Probiotics can reduce infection, inflammation, muscle soreness, and gastrointestinal permeability or discomfort. So far, the most substantive evidence of probiotics is to improve the incidence, duration and severity of the upper respiratory tract infection, which may indirectly improve the exercise score.
Studies for improved respiratory symptoms include organisms from lactobacillus families. L.Salivarius may also reduce gastrointestinal permeability by increasing the groups of butyrates, Roseburia and Lachnospiraceae, and reduce spacium. Although there is evidence that the sharing mechanism of probiotic function, the benefit of probiotics is usually dependent on the strain and dose of probiotics.
Probiotics can reduce intestinal permeability and antioxidant states and reduce inflammation to mitigate strenuous exercise on gastrointestinal intestinal discomfort and muscle soreness. A combination of Brabahavioma and eosinophilus and bispecific bifidobacteria helps to prevent travelers diarrhea.
Probiotics can also improve nutrient absorption and utilization, glycogen storage, body ingredient, energy collection, etc. by the production of biologically active metabolites (such as short-chain fatty acids, neurotransmitters), intestinal pH adjustment, and intestinal changes. Hormone generation and cognitive and emotional microbial groups. For example, plant Lactobacillus increases the endurance performance of the three athletes of the iron, and increases the short chain fatty acid in the manure. A study on mice showed that the bacterial strain separated from an Olympic weightlifter [L. Salivarius sub-seed Salicinius (SA-03)] by increasing the liver and muscle glycogen and reduces lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen, ammonia And the creatine kinase increases endurance and muscle strength after exercise.
However, more studies have shown that polyglymia ratio of germacterial probiotics have a stronger synergistic effect, which indicates that a variety of strains can function in a complementary manner to provide performance advantages.
Probiotics may therefore be conducive to improving exercise achievements through direct and indirect mechanisms, although evidence of the supplementary effect is still rare.
How to supplement probiotics?
The difference in probiotic strains and dosage and individual baseline diet, immune status, and microbial groups may result in differences between the results, so that comparison and conclusions are difficult.
Most of the probiotics supplementary for athletes did not evaluate the intestinal microbial groups, so it is difficult to determine whether the efficacy depends on the change of the intestinal microbial group of baseline or participant. At the same time, ingestion intake, especially the intake of fiber and probiotics, may also affect the role of probiotics, so it should be considered in the analysis. Because consumers should be aware that if there is not enough nutritious diet support, alone replenishment may not produce expected results.
In addition, probiotic supplementary solutions for motion usually have a small sample size (ie 10 to 30 participants), and usually only or mainly include male participants, this is problematic because the existence may be a gender-specific impact.
Effect of fermentation food on exercise
It is increasingly focusing on the effects of living cultures in fermentation, and their influence or association with intestinal microbial groups. However, few studies have studied the effects of fermentation foods (including yogurt, Kaifel, sauerku) on exercise.
Three research reports using Kai Phil or fermented milk said that motion-induced CRP or creatine phosphatases and muscle soreness decreased, indicating that these fermentation foods have positive effects on reducing inflammation. A mouse study reported Kaifel's increase in strength and endurance. Therefore, fermentation food containing live microorganisms may be beneficial to inflammation and exercise.
Synbiotics is "containing mixtures containing substrates for live microorganisms and host microbiology, which gives host health benefits." Synbiotics may be a combination of probiotics and probiotics (complementary syndrome), although individual ingredients do not necessarily need to meet probiotics and probiotics standards, as long as they synergies (synergist of synergies). Therefore, the probiotic component can enhance the function of probiotics (synergistic syndrome), or these two components can provide independent beneficial functions after introducing intestines and their resident microorganisms (complementary genomes).
Such microorganisms and selective use of substrates may have different effects than individual supplementary benefits or probiotics. However, only 1 study investigated the synergy and independence of these ingredients on the active human beings. Synborary Supplements (Subrids 431, animal bifidobacteria lactilic acid sub-bb-12, eosinophilica La-5, Ratsacteria Lactobacillus) LGG, LGG, LGG, Raftiline, Raftilose, lactoferrin, immunoglobulin, Arabic gums and serum IL-16 concentrations are relatively correlated, but the syndrome supplements and Arabic gums do not affect SCFA concentration, immune or gastrointestinal permeability. Therefore, compared to individual replenishment or probiotics, Synbiotics may have different or additional effects on the health and performance of athletes.
Trace nutrients help immune function, inflammation, energy metabolism and skeletal health, affecting exercise. The intake of sufficient iron, zinc, and vitamins A, E, C, B-6 and B-12 is critical to proper immune functions, which may be affected under high strength training and competition conditions.
In addition, due to the loss of sweat and urine and increased oxidative stress, the athletes may increase the dietary demand for some micronutrients. In addition, female athletes or women increase the risk of exactlycene, which affects health and performance.
Trace nutrients and intestinal microbial groups
Lack of antioxidant micronutrients (eg, vitamins C and E and selenium) will reduce the number of symbiosis of intestinal bacteria while promoting the increase in E. coli.
In the pressure increasing animal, vitamin C, vitamin E, polyphenol, thionic acid and microbial antioxidant antioxidant mixture can restore the intestinal oxidation reduction state, which is related to the increase of bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus and E. coli reduction. However, excessive intake of certain micronutrients may also increase infection susceptibility. For example, the infant excessive iron will increase the pathogenic microorganism, including E. coli, and cause intestinal inflammation.
Therefore, supplementing trace nutrients may have microbial groups in microbial groups in immune and inflammation in the absence of pressure increase or micronutrient. Calcium and vitamin D
Calcium and vitamin D support bone health. In addition, vitamin D may affect skeletal muscle mass and strength by regulating calcium-dependent contraction, protein-dependent skeletal muscle metabolism, mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity. The increase in Bifidobacteria, the increase in Bifidobacteria, and the increase in the increase in calcium absorption is positively correlated with the increase in calcium absorption. This may be due to the production of short-chain fatty acids, which increases calcium by lowering the colon pH or regulating signal path or gene expression. The intake of vitamin D will also affect the intestinal microbial group, although the variability of the results exclude the ability to determine the effects of the supplement on a particular classification group. The two-way relationship between calcium and vitamin D and intestinal microbial groups is of great significance to all age groups of sports, whether it is growing or maintaining bone density to reduce fracture risks.
The gastrointestinal problems are more common in athletes and long-term exercise. In order to relieve symptoms, athletes may avoid or limit some foods that will trigger symptoms. Athletes can also use nutritional strategies to increase gastric emptying and improve the absorption of water and nutrients, including avoid high FODMAP food and bran.
FODMAP is a short-chain carbohydrate that is not easy to digest, which increases the penetration load in the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microorganisms can ferment these dietary components to form gases, resulting in abdominal distension and gastrointestinal discomfort.
Recent studies on the finalarth Earner FODMAP intake, high intake will lead to gastrointestinal symptoms. The preliminary results show that low FODMAP diet reduces the symptoms of athletes. However, FODMAP also acts as the fuel of the intestinal microbial group, which may affect the composition and function of the community.
There is a speculation that gluten-free diet can improve the symptoms of gastrointestinal tract, not it itself, but a decrease in FODMAP food.
Only one study survey the impact of gluten-free diet on non-abdominal endurance athletes, including gluten-free diet to manifest, gastrointestinal symptoms, health, intestinal damage or inflammation.
Summary and prospect
Motion may be an important intervention measures to change the intestinal strain composition and restoration of intestinal symbiosis
The current research support movement is an important behavioral factor, which can affect the qualitative and quantitative changes of intestinal microorganisms and function, and beneficial to the host. Motion can enrich the diversity of microbial groups, stimulate the proliferation of mucosa immunity, improve the bacteria of the barrier function, and stimulate bacterial and functional paths that can prevent gastrointestinal diseases and improve performance.
Although these variations may not occur between individuals in a similar manner, may also depend on the baseline characteristics of the microbial group and the host.
It is worth noting that certain flocks may be enriched in athletes, such as A. MuciniPhila with a lean shape, and Veillonella produced by gaseous propionic acid. The elite athletes are rich and diverse, which is conducive to metabolic intestinal microbiological groups, which is likely to accumulate high nutritional intake and high-intensity exercise and training throughout adolescence and adults.
The benefits of motion involve the combination of intrinsic and external factors
People who often move more likely to come into contact with their environmental biospheres and follow the overall healthy lifestyle, so they have a healthier microbial group.
At the same time, the intrinsic adaptability of endurance training, such as reduced blood flow, increased tissue hypoxia, transport and absorption capacity, can cause changes in gastrointestinal tract. The change in gastrointestinal transportation time will affect the pH of the colon cavity, which may result in changes in the composition of the intestinal microbial group. The longer colon transshipment time is related to the decrease in the diversity of intestinal microbial groups, and accompanied by an increase in pH in the transfer process from the proximal colon to the distal colon.
Long-term excessive exercise has adversely affects intestinal function
Although exercise is usually healthy, if the duration and intensity increase, it will not be harmful to the support of sufficient rest, nutrition, it will become harmful.
Dramatic movement Redistributes blood from the internal organs to the active breathing tissue. Long-term bowel low perfusion will damage the mucosal steady state and lead to intestinal cell damage, which may cause intestinal ischemia, especially in the case of dehydration, showing abdominal colic, diarrhea or occasional blood diarrhea, will also make the intestine Dual Turnotactivity is increased, and inflammation is generated. This adverse effect is especially true in endurance movement.
The study of interaction between human intestinal microbial groups and sports is still lacking
Especially in combination with control diet, this is an important mixture. Accurate nutrients and diet quality, will help to distinguish between intestinal microbial groups from other mixed factors.
Studies should also record liquid intake or measuring hydrated biomarkers (such as and peptidin) to determine whether the hydrated state affects the intestinal microbial group, and vice versa.
In addition, the effects of diet and motion on the intestinal microbial group are usually short-lived and will not continue after intervention. This indicates that long-term living habits is necessary to induce stability changes in intestinal microbial groups. Interventions during key developmental windows may have more persistent effects on intestinal microbial groups, of course, this requires further study. Research field of intestinal microbial groups related to exercise related to sports
Mohr AE, ET Al., J Int Sop Sports Nutr. 2020
Future research should focus on the use of a hierarchical method, using a human body clinical trial to identify target bacteria that may be beneficial in motion performance, and use animal and in vitro study to determine causal relationships and mechanisms.
The human body test can then be used again to determine whether to supplement the identified bacteria or carry out eating habits (eg, probiotics / non-digestive carbohydrates, ɷ-3 fatty acid supplements, protein intake type / quantity) to improve bacteria Abundance and / or function is conducive to sports performance.
Clinical studies need to be investigated high protein diet, all food protein sources and protein supplements in the control of the diet to determine the effects of these diet patterns and components on the intestinal microbial group of athletes.
In addition, more research is needed to clarify the amount of dietary fat and the effect of intestinal microbial groups and subsequent microbial groups (eg, by bile acid) on exercise.
In short, people are increasingly aware that individual differences in microbial groups will lead to differential differences in motion reactions and health results.
Future research should also integrate other "group" data
Integrate other "histology" data to determine potential metabolites, genes, genes and apparent genetic modifications that may cause, mediate or adjust diet and motion on intestinal microbial groups.
The use of "histology" data is combined with the machine learning method, which is likely to reveal the new association between the intestinal microbial group and its metabolites, diet and motion performance, and predict a personalized reaction of the dietary strategy. The effects of these findings include raising athlete's achievements and improve health, especially health of gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system.
In addition, research has more in-depth understanding of interaction between intestinal microbial groups, diet and human health, which may have the impact and application of the sports population to benefit everyone's health.
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