Preparation and pilot of land reform
The feudal land ownership is a total root source that causes peasant poverty and agricultural production. Before liberation, most land of Yongjia Rural are occupied by landlords, and the majority of poor merchants are uniform or completely unless. According to the survey before land reform (referred to as local reform), it accounts for 2.28% of the rural households, accounting for 11.27% of the countryside, accounting for 17.46 mu, accounting for 59.77% of the number of rural households, only the countryside 27.60% of the land, the household is only 1.63 acres. Thoroughly reform the feudal land system, is the need of the liberation of rural productivity is the most urgent and most fundamental requirement of farmers.
In September 1949, the first representative meeting of Zhejiang Province held in Zhejiang Province, and used the preparation of the earth and reform with a year or so. On February 28, 1950, the Central People's Government Administration issued the "Indication on Land Reform and Glood Food on New Jibex Areas". On April 12, the CCP's Wenzhou Lite Committee issued the "Plan on Land Reform Preparation", which made a clear specific instruction for the investigation content, establishing organization, and working steps. After this, the Yongjia County Committee of the Communist Party of China has conducted a full preparation in accordance with the higher-level requirements.
The first is the investigation research. According to the relevant instructions in the superiors, the county party committee actively organizes power, and has made a comprehensive and systematic investigation on the land status, class relationship, rental relationship between the county. The results of the survey showed that 11 districts in the county can be substantially divided into two different types of regions: one is the coastal plain area, including three streams, 埏, Yongqi 3 districts and Yongzhong, and 2 directly related to Tuanxi. This type of area is: the landlord operates more commercial and business owners, the number of employees is very large; workers, staff, freelancers have many people to rent a small part of the land; there is a peasant in the farmer That is, the use of the rented land is more common; the public land ("Charity", "Xue Tian", "Sacrifice", Tima, etc.); the number of large farmers used land is large. The other is the mountainous area and other regions, including Luofu, Shantou, Xikou, Bilian, Fenglin, Digou, Fujiqiao, and 8 districts. This type of area is: business and business is not developed, and the landlord and less business and business are less; the land occupies more than the plain area, but the use is more dispersed, and the big farmers are only individual. Due to the small Santa field, most farmers rely on the landscaping, while the occupants of the mountain are mostly landlords, rich farmers, Chinese farmers, and poor people.
On the basis of investigation and research, Yongjia County also launched the hometown of hometowns, and organizing land. In January 1950, the Provincial Party issued the "Township Township Work Instruction" and requested the scope of the township-level regime. On May 5th, the county party committee research decided to draw 54 townships in the county to 85 townships. After that, the county is generally working in the Township Township. In the Townsping Township, the townships held a representative meeting, and some also elected the township people's government committee. On this basis, according to the requirements of the "Organize Land Interim Measures" issued in June 1950, the county has held the work of the land. On the basis of organizing the original field, the migrant workers launch farmers, according to their original land registration materials, and return to the account. After landing, it has found a large number of concealing land to provide more accurate land numbers for the land.
Secondly, training cadres. In order to prepare for the local reform, the provincial party committee decided that all cadres who participated in the land should be trained in advance. Provincial, earth, county party committee division of labor is responsible for training cadres, the party school of the Provincial Party Committee is responsible for training counties, district leadership and digestive work captains, and the party committee cadres and district members of the party committee members of the party committee and the local reform work players, the county party committee is responsible for training the countryside Cadres and farmers active molecules. The first phase of the provincial party committee and the first phase of May 1950, the local committee and the county party committee have also conducted a large-scale training cadres from August to October. In winter in 1950, the county party committee has organized 422 trains, and two of the tops of the bones were trained, 125 people were selected, and 45 people were selected. After training, trained cadres have significantly improved in terms of policy level and ideological style.
The third is a typical test. Land reform is a fierce class struggle that must be leadership, planned, and in order. On June 30, 1950, the "Land Reform Law of the People's Republic of China" (hereinafter referred to as "Land Reform Law") was officially promulgated, and land reforms in the new liberation area of the country have been reliable legal basis. On August 14th, the county party committee established the local reform headquarters, responsible for guiding the native reform of the county, Wei Junzhe, Liu Zhiliang, Zheng Zhongqing, Guo Mingyuan, Li Yunhe as a member of the headquarters. At the first representative meeting, the first representative meeting of the Communist Party of China, the deputy secretary of the county party committee conveyed the superiors on the "spiritual reform work", and reported on the topic of Yongjia County. On October 13, the county party faithfully sent four vibration teams to the ancient temples, Luofu, Xiongxi (now Wenzhou Ouhai District), and the Township of the Township for the digestion.
According to the "careful and cautious, steady advancement" work policy and the experience of provincial and soil reform pilot hometown, the Pilot Trial of Yongjia County is divided into five steps:
First, publicity and education. After entering the pilot country, the localization team has adhered to the mass line, holding the struggle meeting and carrying out the education of complaints, and launch the masses to expose the landlord's sin, helping the poor farmers to recognize the history of the landlord and the history of farmers, and the changes of farmers after liberation. Inspire the class consciousness of farmers. On this basis, absorbing farmers' active molecules and representatives of people on behalf of the figures and improving the peasant associations, making it a legal implementation organization that has the right to decide to confiscate and distribute land property. The Land Reform Task Force successfully held a variety of conferences such as the masses, the poor Mermerus Conference, the Farmers Congress, promoting the "Land Reform Law" and the justice and necessity of the local reform, and explained the "land reform law" to the farmers by examining. At the same time, publicity education has also been publicized into small land tenants, rich farmers and landlords, through various symposiums, tangible policies, to make people comply with and support the Land Reform Decree. The second is to divide the class. In order to do this, the local reform team shall organize the national farmers' congress to conduct publicity and mobilization and deployment of the mobilization and deployment of the mobilization and deployment of the promotion, and arrange the mobilization and deployment of promotion and deployment. Then, in the village, the Village Members and Village General Assembly, and the spirit of the Township Farmers Association, discuss and divide class ingredients. First, the landlord is drawn, the county party committee asks the team to adopt the policy of unity and education, the education cadres and the masses, neither the landlord, but also to prevent the performance. At the divided class component, farmers actively listed the leadership and crosses opposite the landlord, forcing the landlord to recognize the fact that the exploitation and bowing crime, and then published. Then evaluate the ingredients of the farming and small land taxi. For the rich farmers, the county party committee requires the team to strictly master, mainly criticizing the illegal exploitation and abuse of rich peasants, do not generally oppose the exploitation; it is necessary to affirm that the rich farmers should participate in labor. There is a difference in feudal exploitation with landlords. The definition of rich farmers is strictly based on the 25% standard of its family's total year-in-year revenue, and prevent the richness of the farming. Zhongnong, poor farmers, and worried farmers are divided into ingredients in the Peasant Association. Finally, the newspaper of the Township and Earth Reform Tourism team will be announced.
The third is confiscation. According to the provisions of the Land Reform Law, the land, farm, farm tools and excess homes, food, and orders, etc. Protecting the land and other property of their own plowing and hiring farming; levy ancestral halls, temples, schools, groups, and industrial and commercial land in the countryside. The land and other production materials confiscated and levied are received by the Peasant Association.
The fourth is allocated. The general steps and principles of allocation work are: the general meeting is held in the village, and the principles and methods of confiscation of land acquisitions, the distribution of allocation are announced. The unified allocation standards of the township will be levied, the land, property, and the land grade, fair, and reasonably allocate to the landless or small farmers. Educational cadres, active molecular models lead, focusing on unity and mutual, fully negotiating, trying to make allocation reasonable. All villages set up the distribution committee to develop the principles of allocation, adopting the first-handed reasons, self-reported, and finally the approval allocation scheme of the distribution committee. Rental farmers, 鳏 鳏 孤 孤 除 应 土 土 土. For domestic difficult handicraft workers, small traders and other non-agricultural populations, they draw their own land, which is discussed by their own decision to assign.
The fifth is to sum up experience, organize production. After completing the land distribution, all the earth-reform Task Force immediately organized the summary experience. The main purpose of propagating the land and reform to the rural cadres is to develop production and dawn and change two tasks, and stipulate the leadership production of the village head. . At the same time, it is also actively organized farmers to carry out mutual assistance cooperation, overhaul, and accumulated, and strive to develop production.
Through the pilot, the general rules of rural land reform are basically, and the experience of leading the land reform is accumulated, and the foundation has been launched for the comprehensive development of the earth.
The completion of the development and authentication of land reform
In December 1950, the Zhejiang Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, according to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the progress of Zhejiang in the preparation stage of Zhejiang, decided to transfer the land to the comprehensive development stage, and the work policy is "careful and cautious, steadily forward" change " Let go to launch the masses, boldly launch sports. According to the basic conditions of various districts, the Yongjia County Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to carry out land reforms, first started from the top of the plain regions in the foundation, and later broke through the edge of the mountain. 145 towns in the county, mainly divided into three batches.
The first batch from January to February 1951, most of the towns and towns of Sanxi, Wei Yan, Luve, Yongqiang District were held, totaling 37 townships. The rural villages in these districts have concentrated, the masses are better, and there is no bandits, so the earth changes have been very smooth. After more than a multi-month hard work, they basically complete the land-reform tasks.
The second batch from February to April 1951, most of the townships in Fenglin, Yonglun, Fujiqiao, and Shantou District were held in the township. Due to the experience of 37 townships from the plains that have just ended the earth-reform, the purpose of the 78 townships is clear, and the masses are rapid, the method steps have greatly improved the work efficiency of the land or change, and the land-reform task is basically completed in mid-April.
The third batch was launched on April 20, 1951, and the mainland reforms were involved in the 15 townships in Bilian and Xikou District. When most of the provinces have basically completed land distribution, the provincial party committee and the provincial government have made special deployments for the inspection of local reform, and their purpose, content, steps, and methods are clearly indicated. In July 1951, Wu Zhiyu, deputy director of the provincial party committee, the provincial party committee, leads 320 people to Wenzhou, 4 districts in Yongjia County, and 24 Townspanic Tests. After inspection, the Yongjia digestion trial was well launched, fully launched the masses, and implemented the principles and policies of the superiors. On August 7, the county party committee formulated the "Plan on the Foundation of the End of the Earth Reform", decided to check the center of the work of the land. On August 15, after the county party committee held the Tuli Congress, the Institute of Task Force launched the work of the task and other work, mainly whether the people were fully launched, whether or not the class ingredients. There are some problems in the inspection, mainly: First, there is a "peaceful earth change" tend to be "peaceful land reform", and it is not completely crashed with illegal litter. Second, there is a "false soil change" and "生" phenomenon, and the cadre package shall be replaced. The people do not really make a master. Third, a very small number of cadres selfish ideas are serious, there are more fruits and even corruption fruits, misconduct, chaotic, chaos and even murderers. The fourth is that some cadres in the local reform work, the policies are not strict, and the cadres play people at the Fighting Conference, fines and other mistakes, some villages even let the landlords wear hoods and listed the streets. The fifth is that some village grassroots organizations are not pure, and new and old cadres are not united.
The county party committee has subscribed to the problem, correct, and properly resolved. By the end of December 1951, there were 15 townships in Bi Lian and Xikou District, and Yongjia Land Reform and review was basically over. After investigation, the county has settled 2183 landlords, 736 rich farmers, 33,463 Chinese farmers, 54,957 poor people, 2197 employees, and more than 2060 households. Conveniently confiscation and levy land 28,255.8 mu, cultivated 3,583 heads, mainly 99,710 farmers, 33,593 excess homes, and over 545,000 kg of excess food. There are 1974 households, 2197 people in 18588, China, China to the land reform victory.
While checking the end of the earth, the entire opening ceremony is also launched. By August 1951, most townships in the county, the villages have established the overall issuance committee and the issuing group. On April 4, 1952, the county party committee issued the "Opinions on Overall Implications", the purpose, requirements, methods, steps, precautions of the whole boutiquicle, etc., have made further clear. The basic content is: (1) launching the people's own belief registration. (2) Chain the property and finish the emblem. (3) Fill in the issuance, burning the old contract. Subsequently, the county and district governments were in accordance with the requirements of "opinions", according to the local land occupancy of each township and towns, issued a "land real estate all certificates", and the ownership of land and homes from the farmers were recognized. By the end of May, there were 119 townships in the county awarded all the right to land, and 160,000 farmers got a land certificate. Through the overall birth, clarify the land area, the county increased the land 239,306 mu, increased production of 28.53 million kilograms.
In the county in the local reform work, according to the unified deployment of the central and provincial party committees, the county is resolutely implemented "relies on poor farmers, hire farmers, unity and China farmers, and has steps to eliminate feudal exploitation systems, develop agricultural production". The land reform is protected from rich agricultural economy, preventing investigated business, only the land, farm animal, farm tool, excess food, and excess housing in rural houses, etc., the industrial and commercial and other property of the landlord does not confiscate, and Also distribute to the landlord, so that they can also rely on their own labor to maintain life. Improve the landlord to the landlord, unite the landlord, focusing on the minority landlord. Unlike the land reform of the old liberation area in the past, the rich farm land property is not allowed to levy, and the policy of protecting the rich agricultural economy is taken. At the same time, pay attention to the treatment of Zhongtian, only leaving three generations of Zhongtian, the three generations of Xiaofen Tian does not levy, according to the share of the public. These policies not only promote the recovery of industry and commerce, but also make agronomy to produce, and it is conducive to unity and stabilization.
New weather in the countryside after land reform
Land reform is a maximum, thorough reform of China's history for thousands of years, and opened up roads for socialist construction. The Yongjia Rural Yongjia, in politics, and economically, in politics, fundamentally changed the face of rural areas, and all aspects present a new weather.
The land reform destroyed the long-term rule of the feudal forces in the rural areas, and the peasants turned over. Under the leadership of the party and the government, the peasant masses recognized the implementation of land reforms, and the land of the land is stronger from the landlord. It is a tragic situation of the landlord under the foot under the foot. Become the owner of the countryside. The majority of poor farmers united, and the landlord launched justice, the occupancy of the landlord has long been exploiting the evils of the peeling criminals, and punishes the landlords with blood bonds according to law. In the land reform, rural grassroots organizations have experienced the test of struggle and continuously develop and grow. By 1951, the county has established 52 Township Agricultural Association, 508 Village Agricultural Union, and more than 80,000 members. At the same time, the masses of militia, women, youth groups, and children and other groups have also established the organization, and play a positive role in the land reform movement. The peasant active molecules that have emerged in the struggle, a large number of leadership and backbone selected as the grassroots regime, the peasant masses truly become the pillar of rural people's political power. They actively participated in the various democratic reforms and political struggles in the countryside. Many young and middle-aged farmers participated in the militia organization, stunned and whistled, regulating the landlord, defending the victory of land reform. The land reform destroys the ownership of the landlord class, and achieves all the ownership of farmers. In the land reform, through the confiscation of land and excess property, the vast majority of the land, the land, farmers are separated from land and other necessary production materials. The land occupied by poor farmers in the county rose from 27.60% to 46.26%, and the land occupied by the China farmers rose from 45.83% to 45.84%, the landlord, the land occupied by the rich, fell from the original 13.49% to 3.96%. Through the reform of the land, the cultivator has its own field, and has greatly released productivity, improved the production enthusiasm of the farmers. They are encouraged to encourage the slogan of "labor happiness, patriotic increasing production", actively open the wilderness, and the fertilizer , Improved the basic construction of farmland and other farmland, implement deep tillage, improve production technology, and struggle with various natural disasters in a timely manner, so that agricultural production quickly resumes and develops. The majority of rural women have also been liberated from the shackles of the feudal system, and their gains participate in the production labor and social activities. In the gongs of the land reform victory, there are 270, including 270 people who are self-employed by men and women, the woman does not take a flower sedan, and the wedding ritual is married, and the bride is under the kitchen. , Carry out cooperative production competition. Shuangling Township, Shuangling Township, and Lu Tian Village farmers stepping through the ice new channel, burning coke gray, smashing river mud, cultivating spring flowers.
The land reform movement destroyed the monopoly of cultural education in the feudal landlord, which greatly promoted the development of rural culture. After the reform of the land, with the development of the rural economy, the cultural needs of the farmers are increasingly urgent, and farmers have actively learned the craze, winter, and the farmers, and the farming. By April 1951, the county has 3294 in winter, 20,000 students. The number of people in the countryside, the cultural room, and the reporting group, and the number of farmers subscribed to the newspapers increased significantly. The development of cultural education has removed the feudal superstitions, sterersum, etc. in rural areas, and play an important role in rural economic development and social progress, so that the spirit of farmers is new.
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