How to make psychological counseling on athletes, how to regulate the mental health of the athlete, adolescent contact sports What are the help of mental health? The reporter conducted an exclusive interview with the sports psychological experts of the Shanghai Physical Education College.
Athletes: Psychological regulation is "must-have class"
Wen Yu is a member of the Rio Olympic Games, China Shooting Team prepares the medical security team. In her opinion, the psychological quality of athletes is often very powerful, because "sometimes a shot determines the future life". How to regulate psychological stress during the game, becoming a "must-have course" of athletes and security teams.
"Facing the competition, psychological work can be divided into three stages, respectively, pre-preparation, downtime support and post-match psychological recovery." Wen Yu said.
At the preparation stage of the game, Wen Yu suggested that at least one week before the start of the game, the mood will be adjusted before the start of the competition, and the psychological regulation should be conducted, such as mentality preparation, information and environmental response, physical condition attention and adjustment.
"For example, encounter cross-provincial, cross-level, and even cross-time zones, the body and psychology of the athletes will have corresponding changes, especially in the competition, athletes should have the process of work, psychological response. Process The more detailed, the more beneficial to relieve anxiety. "Wen Yu said that athletes himself make a game plan and is very important.
During the competition, sometimes the psychologists will not be able to enter the stadium, so Wen Yu will prepare "small paper" to the coach, providing some directional dialogue guidance. If there are exchange time in the middle of the game, such as during the qualifier to final, the coaches and psychologists will make some short-lived psychological adjustments to athletes, help athletes for emotional adjustments, identify problems and responses.
After the high-intensity competition, how to make the athlete will recover normal from the excitement, summarize its own issues, etc., and also need psychologists to guide the athletes to put energy in the exercise into other roles of life and harvest the experience in the game. With methods, generally in life.
"Can go to the professional ranks, special top runners, very persistent," Wen Yu said, even if the retired athletes can release the energy drawn in the next stage, can also achieve good Result.
Epidemic: Follow athlete's psychological changes
Affected by the epidemic, this year's sports events have been greatly reduced compared with previous years, some major events are also canceled or forced to postpone. In this case, Wen Yu believes that it is necessary to pay attention to the psychological changes of athletes, especially in a long time to close the training, no In the case of the contest, the sports state of the athletes may not meet the expected levels or fluctuations, require a variety of ways, and the channel maintains their relatively smooth psychological state.
"Original Olympic team has been completed, but it will have a change in the postpartum afterwards. In the face of new Olympic programs, some athletes may not participate because of the age, physical state, etc., some athletes should face over time. Some athletes may not be implemented on time due to expectations for their competition, these may make the athletes have psychological drop. "Wen Yu suggested that the coach group should re-adjust the plan according to long-term goals. It is a systematic job that takes some time, accepts changes, relocation goals and achievements in this process.
From the past experience, Wen Yu recommended that all teams psychologically evaluate the athletes, and then do the dynamic adjustment. "Every athlete is different, and the sports performance goals must change, dynamically adjust their goals, go Accepting changes, slacking from emotions and cognitive levels, then adjusting the training intensity, and it is also recommended that all sports teams actively do some other activities, and adjust the psychology and enthusiasm of athletes through a variety of forms. "
For the gradually released mass events, Wen Yizhen suggested that sports enthusiasts adjust their performance expectations according to the current physical fitness and technologies, and can participate more active participation in activities and competitions, but they cannot be too high. "After all, after a long time, the body is also changing, and should do a good job in training, injury prevention, and then actively prepare."
Teen: Don't let your child lying
"If you are exercising, the younger exercise, the better. From the childhood period, as long as he / she wants to climb, don't let the child lie." Wen Yu smiled, the regular exercise is improved to nervous system development and cognitive ability helpful.
2018 "China Children's Youth Physical Activity Guide" Recommended Children's Adolescents (6 to 17 years old) should be carried out for at least 60 minutes of medium and high-intensity physical activities, including high-strength physical activity and enhance muscle strength every week. Skeleton health resistance activities. Children's adolescent body exercise activities can improve the concentration of brain-sex neurological factor (BDNF), which in turn has improved the body. If you participate in strategic, tactical sports training, you can also improve social skills and social ability.
"Take Golf as an example, golf can improve the body's ability, the fine control of the size of the muscle group, has improved the coordination, decision-making capacity, such as according to the weather, the site situation, what to do, how to change the muscles The project of golf is relatively low for physical quality, and it is an outdoor movement. When the exercise transcend, it can also combine low-intensity aerobic exercise, and there is a lot of benefits to physical and psychological development. "Wen Yu Say. For the current campus sports, Wen Yu believes that the enthusiasm of the children must not come from the contest, but in the process of participating in the movement, the child feels happiness after the exercise. These are more important than running the first, and more important. If you do not take a career development path, you can reduce your tiredness.
"I have been focusing on learning may also be burnout, and proper exercise will help to learn more in the process, just like a lot of adults will insist on sports, the happiness brought by sports can help people can help people from boring. Learning, the work is freed out. "Wen Yu said. (Reporter Zhou Chang)
Tip: The content of this article is for reference only, please refer to the consultation results of regular hospitals!